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Recently, I left the house early in the morning for a long run, and my safety-conscious and caring wife asked me what time I would be home. I told her that I should be back at around 6:30 AM, and added, “Unless, of course, I have a Forrest Gump moment, and then who knows?”

If you remember that movie, the main character puts on his red swooshed white Nikes and starts running. The next thing he know, he has run from coast to coast across the continental United States. He then turns around and does the same thing in the opposite direction. When asked what filled his mind while he ran he said, “Mostly, I just thought about Jenny”—the love of his life. After all, many years earlier, when he was being chased by some bad boys, Jenny exhorted him, “Run, Forrest, run!” She was, as it were, the one who got him into running in the first place.

At the risk of being misunderstood, Hebrews 12:12–17 is an exhortation to the believer in Jesus Christ, “Run, Christian, run!” And we do so thinking about the love of our life, and the one who entered us into the race: the Lord Jesus (vv. 1–4).

Our writer, as we have seen over and over, was deeply concerned that these Jewish believers—whoever and wherever—would continue to run the race until the end. He desired, like Jesus (Matthew 24:13), for them to endure to the end and be saved.

At the same time, he also had a very corporate concern. He wanted each and every member of the congregation to run, and to run well as they sought to finish well. In a nutshell, this is the theme of this section in Hebrews 12. And this theme, of course, is very relevant to you and me.

As we run the race of grace, we run it by grace. But sometimes we are tempted to give up.

As we face various hardships, we find ourselves at times overwhelmed as though we have hit the proverbial wall in a long distance race. We feel like giving up and caving in to unbelief. It is precisely at such times that we need to hear this exhortation: “Run, Christian, run!”

Our text for this study is just such an exhortation. And it tells us not only to run, but thankfully also how to run.

Run Smart

In commenting on the previous passage (vv. 5–11), James Moffatt once commented, “To endure rightly one must endure intelligently.”1 In other words, we need to think if we will successfully run the race of grace.

We need to listen to the Scriptures and hear the Lord’s lessons for us (v. 5). We need to listen to how we should interpret what is happening and then respond accordingly. And I believe that the beginning of v. 12 helps us to see this matter of intelligent running. The key word is “therefore.”

This, of course, informs us that what he is about to say is predicated upon what he has just said. Raymond Brown summarises vv. 5–11: “Divine correction provides the church with well-trained Christians.”2 That is an important thought to keep before us as we delve into this next section.

The Picture

The picture, in keeping with vv. 1–2, is that of a long distance race. You are tired, your body is telling you that you have nothing left, and you feel like you are going to collapse. There are two indications: Your arms have dropped to your side and your legs seem to be buckling at the knees. You want to quit. Yet we are exhorted to run.

We must run, but we must run smart. We have to use our heads. We must think. Rather than listening to the lies that tell us to give up, we must speak truth to ourselves. Then, and only then, will we keep running the race.

The overall exhortation is clear: Keep running the race and help others to stay in the race as well. You are a part of a team, so behave like it.

We will take this apart in more detail as the exposition proceeds, but it is important for us to grasp this fundamental theme. Let’s take a moment and drive home two important and relevant issues before progressing in our exposition.

First, let’s think about the reality of hardship in the Christian life. When trials come, we do not respond with flippancy or even, in some cases, with a type of stoicism exemplified by a Pollyanna approach to life. Joel Osteen, no doubt, sells well, but so much of what he offers is merely placing a plaster on a cancer. It is superficial at best and soul-destroying in the end.

The writer to the Hebrews is the one you should listen to. Life is hard, and he knew it. The “chastening” of our Father is painful (v. 11). In fact, they are intended to be! We learn far more through pain than through pleasure. Ask Job. Ask Paul. Better yet, ask Jesus (Hebrews 5:7–9).

It is correct to conclude from this passage that the disciplines of grace are at times very difficult. Life hurts. Trials can be very weighty and our arms can seemingly fail and fall as our knees buckle under the burdens that God both allows and ordains for us. There is no use burying your head in the proverbial sand and saying, “It ain’t so.” For it is so! Yet at issue is, how will you respond? Be scripturally smart.

Second, let us observe that the Christian race is a team sport. This passage carries a pervasive corporate concern. Though you may be doing well in the race, there are others who are not doing so well. They, in fact, are injured. They are lame and their condition is about to deteriorate further. The healthier teammates are therefore called upon to do something constructive about this. They are to get involved; they are to help.

I seriously doubt that this can be said too often or emphasised too much. The corporate aspect of the Christian life and therefore of the local church is so important. I need you and you need me. If you try to go it alone, you will indeed find yourself alone—and in many cases aloof and alienated, perhaps even to the point of being AWOL: Apostate without the Lord.

I recently preached a sermon in which I referred to God working through various trials. As a passing illustration, I used unexpected bills as an illustration of God working through a trial. A few days later, I received a text message from a church member, which read, “Hi Doug. I just got my unexpected bill. God is working.” I appreciated the fact that he was not upset about the unexpected bill, but that he had heard the Word and knew that God was at work. I appreciated too that he shared this with me, because he understood that we are on the same team.

Run Strong

Verse 12 exhorts us to run strong: “Therefore strengthen the hands which hang down, and the feeble knees.” This is very much related to what we have just observed. If we run smart then we will run strong.

Biblical Orthopaedics

The word translated “strengthen” (or “lift up” in the KJV) carries the idea of “setting straight again” or “restoring.” The Greek word behind it is anorthoo, and it is from this word that we derive our English term orthotics, as well as orthopaedics. That word comes from the Greek terms orthos (“straight, correct”) and paideia (“rearing of children”).

This is interesting when you consider the overall context. Trials are God’s means to straighten out His children! By the various chastenings, our Father produces a righteous character for us, and such straight living is strong living (see Matthew 5:1–16).

As our spiritual arms weaken and hang down at our sides, and as our spiritual knees weaken as though paralysed by trials, we need to have them restored. However, merely telling someone to pull up their socks is rarely helpful. Constructively, how do we do so?

Fundamentally, we are strengthened by remembering the reason for the difficulties. This is why we must pay attention to the “therefore” of this verse. The writer is referencing Isaiah 35:3–4. This is very significant.

Originally, the prophet was seeking to encourage God’s beleaguered remnant that, in spite of the onslaught of their enemies, the faithful remnant of Israel must continue to faithfully run the race. So it was with this first century remnant of faithful (i.e. Christian) Jews. To the degree that they remembered their heavenly Father and His promises grounded in His covenantal faithfulness, to that degree they would raise their arms, set their knees and go forward in hope.

They could not trust in their own strength. The psalmist made this clear when he wrote, “He does not delight in the strength of the horse; He takes no pleasure in the legs of a man. The LORD takes pleasure in those who fear Him, in those who hope in His mercy” (Psalm 147:10–11).

Remembering the Father and His purposes gives us hope, and hope is such an important stimulant to our continuance in the race. It is the spiritual Energy Bar that refuels our faith and that keeps us going. As Richard Phillips pastorally comments,

What a joy it is to learn that in our sorrows God is training us by his love, that his loving hand is preparing us for an eternity of glory in heaven. It makes all the difference between wandering aimlessly and running a race with conviction, between darkness of soul and the light of the gospel.3

Run Straight

The writer next urges his readers to run straight: “Make straight paths for your feet” (v. 13a). The writer, it would seem, has Proverbs 4:26–27 in mind. There Solomon exhorts God’s followers to be careful that, in their walk with the Lord, they do not stumble. As Guthrie observes, “It is no use the weak knees being strengthened to walk on devious paths. The straightness links with the righteousness idea of verse 11.”4

The emphasis is upon running with care to avoid unnecessary stumblingblocks and to stay on the path. “Pursue ways that are directed straight to the goal” or, “Move in a straight direction with your feet.”5

The writer uses this to encourage his readers to disregard sinful detours and superficial but tempting shortcuts. If we don’t stay the course, we will in the end be disqualified. Cheating will not be tolerated, and those who break the rules will be put out of the race (1 Corinthians 9:25–27).

Later, we will note some ways in which we might be guilty of breaking the rules and therefore of not running straight. But for now, let us take to heart that we have been given the responsibility to run smart and therefore to run strong and to run straight.

Run Sympathetic

In the second part of v. 13, the writer urges us to run sympathetic: “So that what is lame may not be dislocated, but rather be healed” (v. 13).

The phrase “so that what is lame may be healed” implies that whatever was in bad shape will be fixed up if we continue to run strong and straight. That is, if we run faithfully, looking to Jesus (vv. 1–2), we will find ourselves increasing in spiritual fitness.

But the question remains: Of whom is he speaking? Is the author speaking in individual terms or is his concern corporate? I think he is speaking primarily of the latter.

There is no doubt that, as an individual believer runs strong and straight, he will find himself increasing in spiritual health. If he has been maimed or lamed by something along the way then, as he looks to Jesus and gets back into the race, he will experience the body healing itself. Nevertheless, the whole tenor of this passage clearly points to a concern for the whole. The author is saying that it is important for every member to run strong and straight because others are not and they need to be healed. We need to sympathise with them and then try to help them.

Lane helpfully comments,

If those who are stronger will move in a straight direction toward the goal, the brother or sister who is lame will follow more easily and will be healed of his hurt. The prospect of healing for the weakest of their number adds a word of encouragement to the clear directive to the community. The section is thus brought to a conclusion on the note of redemptive comfort.6

Be Self-Conscious because Soul-Conscious

It is because of this that we must be self-conscious as we run our race. Now, this might sound dubious because self is our biggest problem. But there is a difference between being self-centred and self-conscious.

By self-conscious I mean being aware that our actions affect others. Hence, we need to be self-conscious in order to help us to be self-controlled. We might put it this way: We are to be soul-conscious and therefore self-conscious. And when we are, the Body is in a better position to heal itself.

To summarise, the author is exhorting these believers to run in such a way that others will be strengthened and so that others will be straightened. Being soul-conscious like this will require that we be self-conscious of our behaviour. How we run may have a lot to do with how others run as well.

It is clear from the remainder of the passage that the author is deeply concerned for the welfare of these Hebrew believers—for each of them. Verse 15 makes this very clear. As Bruce notes, “Sprains and similar injuries must be bound up, so that the whole community may complete the course without loss.”7 And listen to Hughes: “The idea remains clear—to put the paths in better order so as to make the race easier for the lame…. The point is, every consideration should be made to help everyone finish the race.”8

Three weeks from tomorrow is the Boston Marathon. This is the largest sport-spectator event in North America. It is estimated that some 500,000 people line the 42.2 kilometre route to cheer on the 36,000 runners.

The other day I was running and was feeling pretty fatigued. I tried to imagine how I will feel on 20 April in Boston with ten kilometres to go. It was not a nice thought!

But then I imagined people cheering me on and even calling my name. (Someone has given me a SA running kit with my name in big letters on the front and on the back.) As I envisioned that, it was amazing to sense a bit of an adrenalin rush at the mere thought of people encouraging me to run the race. This is precisely our author’s point. We are to look around at those who are also in the race, yet who are weak. They perhaps are not as spiritually fit as you may be. They may, in fact, be injured. Yet since they appear to be wearing the same kit (marked “Christian”), we are to not only cheer them on but to practically help them as well.

But also note this essential principle: “No-one who does not exert effort to revive himself has any hope of reviving others.”9

We must take responsibility for ourselves before we can help others. So be strong and run straight and then you will be able to strengthen and to ‘straighten out’ others.

Run Sanctified

The author also challenges us to run sanctified: “Pursue peace with all people, and holiness, without which no one will see the Lord” (v. 14).

Cut to the Chase

When the going gets tough sometimes our relationships can get rough. This seems to be the implication here. These beleaguered believers are therefore exhorted to “pursue peace with all people.” Whether he meant all other church members or an all-inclusive “all people” I can’t say for sure. But either would make the same point. Don’t be agitated and don’t be an agitator.

We learn here that, when the going gets tough, the Christian gets holy. And this shows in his pursuit of harmony. As the opposition intensified for these believers, the temptation to respond with increased. The author therefore exhorted them to behave as Christians and to respond in a way consistent with the gospel of peace.

The word translated “pursue” is a strong one, which is usually translated as “persecute.” The picture is that of relentlessly chasing harmony and holiness. The follower of Jesus is chastened by the Father to strengthen us for the chase of harmony and holiness. We work hard at reconciliation and at righteousness.

For example, when there is a breakdown in relationships with others we are committed to: turn the other cheek; to be sympathetic with those being tempted to turn away and respond lovingly rather than with self-righteous anger (the latter is never helpful); and to forgive.

But, of course, they should not think that the right course of action is peace at any price. Rather they are to pursue holiness.

Pursuit of Holiness

The word “holiness” translates the Greek word for “sanctified.” It refers to living a life set apart to God. Jesus Christ is the Holy One, who is our example and our empowerment. The writer wants his readers to respond in a Christ-centred way. Peace and purity—shalom and sanctity—characterised the life of Jesus. They are to characterise ours as well.

This matter is of the utmost importance, as indicated by the closing phrase of v. 14: “without which no one will see the Lord.” Those who are saved (justified), and therefore those who will be truly and fully saved, are those who are not merely persuaded intellectually but rather whose lives reveal that they have truly been converted by the grace of God. They will bring forth fruit.

This verse is not even remotely suggesting that we are saved by works. Rather, indicates the inseparable connection between justification and sanctification (Ephesians 2:8–10). Both must be emphasised. One of the best ways to prove one’s justification is by trials, which are designed to manifest sanctification. When a justified soul is squeezed then peace and purity come forth. Perseverance proves ones profession.

Run Soberly

Finally, in vv. 15–17, we are exhorted to run soberly. The author exhorts these things, challenging believers to be ever

looking carefully lest anyone fall short of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up cause trouble, and by this many become defiled; lest there be any fornicator or profane person like Esau, who for one morsel of food sold his birthright. For you know that afterward, when he wanted to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought it diligently with tears.

(Hebrews 12:15–17)

In what follows, we see the corporate concern that each member of the faith community will “see the Lord.” He emphasises a concern for the corporate pursuit of peace and purity as evidence of perseverance.

A Church Full of Bishops

The phrase “looking carefully” is rooted in a term that is sometimes translated as “bishop” or “overseer.” The idea is that of giving oversight to others. Properly speaking, it means to inspect, much as a shepherd inspects the health of his flock. The clear implication of this exhortation is that every church member must assume this responsibility.

Don’t miss the context: He has just said that without holiness no one will see the Lord (cf. Matthew 5:8–9). And obviously he is very concerned that everyone sees the Lord. He desires the salvation of everyone in this fellowship. This salvific concern demands a corporate concern. This is why they are exhorted to “bishop” one another. We are to be pastoring one another to pursue peace and purity in continual perseverance until the finish line.

A Sobering Sensitivity

It is a sobering thought that someone might outwardly begin the race of grace and yet not persevere to the end (see 2:1; 3:12; 4:1; 6:4–8; 10:26–31). We should be deeply concerned, not only for the lost who are outside the walls of the church, but also for those who in fact may be lost inside the walls of the church. An important question confronting us all is, do we notice? Are we looking carefully?

I don’t mean are we cynical or are we annoyingly self-righteous busybodies. I mean simply do we care? Do you notice the absence of others (and, yes, gathering with the Body is very important according to 10:24–26)? Do you notice attitudes and actions that may suggest weariness and discouragement: drooping arms and feeble knees? Do you notice behaviour and attitudes and even beliefs that may suggest a departure from the Lord? Every member counts and, like an army, our motto needs to be “no one left behind.” I appreciate the words of William Lane who wrote, “The appeal is ultimately for the community to endure in the struggle, with genuine concern for the weakest of their number.”10 Brown adds, “Every Christian has some pastoral responsibility for his fellow Christians.”11

As we have seen, each member is to be conscious, not only of their own souls but also of the souls of their fellow church members. We are to do all we can to keep our fellow church members from departing from the faith. To fall away from the Lord is eternally horrible. We are to help one another to follow Christ rather to follow crowds.

Palm Sunday

It is Palm Sunday as I type these words. On this day, nearly two thousand years ago, the Lord Jesus Christ entered Jerusalem to finish His race. He came into the city with a crowd celebrating Him. He would leave the city, bearing His cross, castigated by a crowd. The way that He handled such a trying time is precisely what our writer is pointing us to. He wants us, like Jesus, to set our face to finish our course.

Certainly there is no other historical event which so highlights the fickle and depraved unbelief of man as the events of this Holy Week: a multitude of people praising Jesus on Sunday and then on Thursday and Friday calling for His arrest, condemning Him as an imposter and demanding His death by crucifixion. Many had seemingly entered the race of following Jesus on Sunday only to draw back irrevocably on Friday. If there is ever a most appropriate time to examine Hebrews 12:12–17, it is today.

But, unlike those on Palm Sunday, we are to help each other to continue to cry out, “Hosanna! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!”

The pastoral exhortation to ‘look out’ for one another has three specific dangers that should soberly move us to take this responsibility seriously.


He writes of his concern, which should also be ours, that someone in the fellowship might “fall short of the grace of God.”

Salvation is entirely by the grace of God. We are saved by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone. And God gets all the glory alone. This is all according to Scripture alone. But we are not to experience this grace alone. Rather, as we have seen, God has given to us brothers and sisters to join us in the journey, to run with us in the race to ensure that we cross the line together.

The sad reality is that not everyone will cross the finish line. Some, like Judas Iscariot, will speak of grace and yet prove in the end to not have known grace at all.

Be on the watch for those who are falling from grace (Galatians 5:4). Though salvation is of the Lord, nevertheless we have been given the responsibility to do all we can to help people to cross the finish line.

Waiting on the Wavering

Not all who are at times sucked into the crowd are hopeless. Hywel Jones helpfully observes that “wavering Christians are not to be written off. They can be restored through the grace of God.”12

In other words, beware of being too hard on people. There is a difference between wickedness and weakness; there is a difference between struggling and stopping. Be concerned and caring enough to put your arm around the person and help them to cross the finish line. Not all who cried our “hosanna” were a part of the crowd who later cried, “Crucify Him.”

Be willing to ask rather than to assume. Be willing to invest time in others. Be willing to pray for them. So look carefully and then speak caringly and passionately. Help others into the grace race.


The writer mentions “any root of bitterness.” What is this?

It is possible that he has in mind a member of the congregation who has been wronged by another and peace has not prevailed. Rather than forgiving the person, a deep shade of bitterness has enveloped the individual (Ephesians 4:31–32).

Jesus did say that if we do not forgive others then we are revealing that we have not been forgiven (Matthew 6:14–15; 18:35). Hughes nails it when he writes, “Those who pursue peace will to forgive and will to forget and will to be kind and will to be thoughtful and will to help others and will to pray for their enemies!”13

We must be careful to help one another to reconcile, or else the consequences may be eternally severe.

Yet, having said this, I am not convinced that this was the main issue on the author’s mind.

Remember that these were Hebrews, and so most would probably have been reminded of this terminology from Deuteronomy 29:18. After highlighting the idolatry among the Egyptians, Moses warned the children of Israel against the same as he declared, “So that there may not be among you man or woman or family or tribe, whose heart turns away today from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations, and that there may not be among you a root bearing bitterness or wormwood.” The “root of bitterness” is clearly idolatry. Such false worship may lead to the damning result of leading others into the same.

This was very relevant to these Hebrew believers. To return to the temple and its ritual would have been akin to false worship; akin to idolatry. As a side note, perhaps many dispensations lists, who seem to be obsessed with a supposedly prophesied rebuilt temple, should think about this. To return to the sacrificial system would be blasphemous; hardly an event we should be anticipating with great excitement.

Brown helps us to appreciate this counsel when he writes,

The words of the covenant are on his lips but not in his heart. His hypocrisy and apostasy are like a dangerous poison; the defilement spreads from the offender to his compatriots…. The frightening sin of apostasy is like a contagious disease. It can quickly spread throughout a whole church.14

Grounded and Guarded

Practically, we should be careful to guard one another from aberrant doctrine that would lead people away from the gospel. And the best way to do that is to be grounded in the gospel. To the degree that we are grounded in the gospel of grace, to that degree we will manifest grace, which in the end may prove to be a means of grace that leads to another being saved by grace (see Proverbs 11:30).


The final appeal is that the community of faith take responsibility to keep their eyes open for those in the fellowship who may exhibit the sinful signs of being an esau. If they did not correct this, they faced the danger of experiencing irrevocably destructive and damning consequences.

It would seem that sexual immorality was a problem with these people (13:4) and therefore the writer warns against fornication. Perhaps Esau had the same problem. This would certainly be consistent with his character of being obsessed with the sensual.

Regardless, sinful lust can destroy a person’s soul and keep them away from Christ. Beware. And help others to beware.

Understand that there is nothing innocent about pornography. It can carry eternally damning consequences.

The word translated “profane” means “unholy.” It is to be this-worldly, in a sensual and senseless way. It indicates trampling on that which is holy. Phillips writes, “These two terms describe a profane attitude about life, namely, that which is sensual and earth-bound, that which pursues carnal cravings of all sorts, sexual and otherwise, rather than spiritual blessing.”15 This certainly characterized Esau as revealed in Genesis 27.

Esau thought exclusively in terms of the here and now. For a pot of stew, he sold his birthright, which essentially was the rejection of God’s covenant. He truly was senseless; his behaviour, in the light of God’s covenant love, made no sense whatsoever.

The point the writer is making is that we are to be on the lookout for the presence of worldliness, both for ourselves as well as for those in the fellowship. When tough times come (vv. 5–11), we are often tempted to run for the stew rather than for the Saviour; to crave the morsel rather than committing to the Master. So much is at stake. Be careful: The consequences of the wrong choice may in fact be irreversible.

No Turning Back

Many of these Hebrew believers were facing a similar temptation. Like Esau, they were faced with a choice concerning the covenant. The fact that God had predetermined that Jacob would receive the blessing is beside the point. The reality is that Esau’s choice proved that he despised the covenant blessing.

These Hebrew believers were faced with a very real choice: the new covenant and salvation, or the old covenant and condemnation. They dare not make the wrong choice. It would be much easier and far more comfortable for them to go along with their fellow Christ-rejecting, new covenant-rejecting friends rather than to pay the price to follow Jesus. But at what ultimate cost? They needed to think clearly and deeply. They needed to forget the stew and embrace the gospel. Life would be difficult, but it beats the eternal alternative.

Say Yes!

In summary, the writer is saying to the congregation, say yes to Christ and do all you can to help everyone in the community to say yes as well.

The twentieth of April this year marks, not merely the 119th running of the Boston Marathon, but it marks a far more significant date. On this day in 1999, thirteen students were murdered by fellow classmates at Columbine High School. Two evil young men went throughout the school shooting to death what seemed, in some cases, to be deliberately targeted people. One of those was seventeen-year-old Cassie Rene Bernall.

One of the gunmen found Cassie in the library and asked her directly if she believed in God. She had a well-known testimony, for which she was about to be martyred. A surviving witness reported that she paused for a moment before, with calm conviction, she looked up and said, “Yes.” The gunman then shot and killed her.

I only recently learned that, two years earlier, she had offered her soul to Satan in a dark ritual. She and a friend had written a letter plotting the murder of one of their teachers as well as seriously discussing the killing of her parents. When her parents learned about this, they arranged for their murderous daughter to attend a local church youth group. In time, the Lord Jesus Christ saved her. She had a dramatic turnaround and transformation. She was no longer a God-rejecting esau but was then a covenantally faithful Christian.

Perhaps it was this transformation that so enraged her gun-toting fellow students. We will never know. But we do know that, when she was faced with life and death, she chose life—eternal life. And her death ushered her into its full enjoyment. In fact, after her death it was discovered that she had underlined a statement in a book she had been reading, which read, “All of us should live life so as to be able to face eternity at any time.”

In her biography, written by her mother (She said Yes), her youth pastor shares that this terrifying trial was preceded by a long period of her consistent testimony of following the Lord in the face of other trials. He insightfully concludes, “The world looks at Cassie’s ‘yes’ of April 20, but we need to look at the daily ‘yes’ she said day after day, month after month.”16

And so, what about you?

Christian, when you hear the Lord and His people calling to you run, say yes.

Unbeliever, do you hear Jesus Christ calling to you to repent and to run to Him for salvation from your sins? I hope so. If you do, then, like Cassie, and like millions before and since her, say Yes. And then, run, Christian, run!

Show 16 footnotes

  1. R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 2:172.
  2. Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 235.
  3. Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 552.
  4. Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 257.
  5. William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:427.
  6. William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:428.
  7. F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 363–64.
  8. Hughes, Hebrews, 2:179.
  9. Guthrie, Hebrews, 257.
  10. Lane, Hebrews, 2:426.
  11. Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 241.
  12. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 140.
  13. Hughes, Hebrews, 2:181.
  14. Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 239.
  15. Phillips, Hebrews, 560.
  16. Phillips, Hebrews, 563.