Hebrews 10:26–31 are some of the most severe verses in all of Scripture. If people are looking for a kinder and gentler God in the New Testament than in the Old Testament, this is not the place to look. These are terrifying verses, which threaten the fire of God’s wrath on those who do not embrace the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour.
One can imagine the recipients of this letter being sobered to silence as this epistle was read when they gathered. Perhaps some overly-sensitive consciences were terrifyingly introspective. For those, these closing verses of the chapter would have been a healing balm. “St. Chrysostom commented that the writer acts very much like a surgeon who confronts and encourages his patient after making a painful incision.”1
Having warned of those who were not doing well—those who were not following Christ with total abandon—the author now says well done to those who are doing well. In fact, he commends the recipients of this letter for having done well in the past, which encourages him that they will do well in the future. His assurance is therefore that they will hear well done in the ultimate future. In the words of Raymond Brown, “he invites his readers to look not only at the impenitent opposition of others, but also at their own firm reliance and perseverance”2 that they might be encouraged. Apparently, they had not only begun well, but they in fact were continuing to run well and it appears that they would finish well. Well done!
In these closing verses, the writer highlights three essentials if we will finish the race of faith to the glory of God; if we will hear, “Well done!”
We can summarise the passage as follows: “By pointing the community to the past as well as to the future, the writer seeks to strengthen their Christian resolve for the present.”3 May it be so with us as well.
Context, Context, Context
To properly appreciate this passage we need to remember the historical context (1:1–2, see also 8:13). When the author wrote, it was the end of the old covenant era and the beginning of the new covenant era.
With this understanding, many other passages are also put into proper perspective—like the Olivet Discourse. This understanding helps us to make sense of so much of this latter portion of Hebrews. In fact, Hebrews 11 serves as an important illustrative parenthesis, which bridges the one theme from 10:32 till 12:29; namely, the need to persevere by faith in these difficult times.
As Jesus predicted, the transition from the old covenant to the new covenant would be tumultuous, beginning with His crucifixion. Nevertheless, those who persevered to the end of this tumultuous time would be saved (Matthew 24:1–13). This is precisely what our author is saying.
As we have come to see, the writer has a deep pastoral concern for those to whom he is writing. He knows that they are facing difficulties. Apparently, the writer is in Italy (13:24), but we do not know the precise location of these Hebrew believers. They may have been in Jerusalem. Regardless, it is clear that they were living in the last days of the old covenant era’s complete transition to the new covenant era. The Jewish War, no doubt, was soon to break out into its full conflagration, which would result in Titus’s destruction of Jerusalem, including the deaths of hundreds of thousands, the captivity of hundreds of thousands more, and the complete desolation of the temple. With this would come a complete end to Judaism in her legitimate state. Never again would this religion exist.
Upon this desolation, no longer would Christianity be viewed as merely a sect of Judaism. This would give it both a new freedom from the attacks of those who were of the synagogues of Satan (Revelation 3:9) as well as opening it up to different attacks. Nero’s persecutions were just around the corner.
It is with this scenario in mind that we can study these verses and truly appreciate the pressures that these Christians were facing, as well as the common denominator with ourselves: the need to persevere in the faith.
Though these categories overlap in some points, nevertheless they are helpful as we run the race that is set before us.
We Must Remember the Past
First, in vv. 32–34, we read of the need to remember the past:
But recall the former days in which, after you were illuminated, you endured a great struggle with sufferings: partly while you were made a spectacle both by reproaches and tribulations, and partly while you became companions of those who were so treated; for you had compassion on me in my chains, and joyfully accepted the plundering of your goods, knowing that you have a better and an enduring possession for yourselves in heaven.
Hughes notes with reference to this passage, “We may have begun well and now want to end well. If so, part of the secret is to remember well.”4
The writer is a good pastor. He desires to comfort the disturbed, and so he recalls their faithfulness in the past. I believe that he does so in order to encourage them to continual faithfulness in the present. He is encouraging them that their endurance by faith in the start of their walk with Christ is now required in their ongoing following of Him.
A Necessary Recall
This has been a tough year for General Motors Automobile Company. They have had to recall some 39 million vehicles in 2014 due to manufacturing faults. Owners of these vehicles have been told to bring their vehicles back to the dealerships to have the problems sorted out so that they will be able to drive in the future more safely and therefore confidently. Repairs to the original condition need to be made. So here.
In this case they had started well but their vehicle of faith was in need of repairs so as to be returned to its original condition. That is why the author exhorts them to “recall the former days” of the beginning of their Christian life.
The word “recall” implies the application of effort to do so. MacArthur defines it as “to carefully think back, to reconstruct in your mind.”5 Sometimes our memoires need to be prodded. And often one of the best means is to be reminded by others.
The author knew his readers, or he at least knew about them. He was aware of their testimony. He was aware that they had begun the race. The word “struggles” comes from an athletic term (athlasis), which “became widely used of the Christian as a spiritual athlete and so points to the strenuous nature of Christian service.”6
As Paul told the Galatian believers, they had run well but apparently now they were being hindered (Galatians 5:7). For this reason, he reminds them of better days that they might do better today with a view to receiving the crown on that Day.
But as Phillips notes, “the author does not ‘recall’ his readers’ attention to the ‘good old days’ where faith seemed easy. It is not the times when things go well that really define our Christian lives. The really significant times, the periods that make up the highlights of our own histories, are those of trial and difficulty and danger.”7
The “former days” obviously refer to their initial days of following Christ. They had been enlightened (2 Corinthians 4:6) concerning the person and work of Christ, and they subsequently were initiated into the community of faith by baptism (6:4). But this initiation was put to the test when, soon thereafter, they faced the contest of the struggle with the world, the flesh and the devil. Just as Jesus preached, the seed that had fallen into soil began to be tested as soon as it showed signs of life (Matthew 13:18–23). But the beautiful reminder is that they in fact endured this hard struggle. Yes, they suffered for their faith in their Saviour, but they persevered nonetheless. The author wants them to remember this, for if they do, then they may find the encouragement to get back in the race or to remain in the race. Some perhaps were in danger of dropping out as indicated by their tendency to isolation (vv. 24–25). But such a reminder might goad them on to perseverance. They just needed someone to remind them! And “the ministry of memory is just as effective today as it was then. Let us make good use of it!”8
Perhaps you too need to remember. Perhaps you need to be reminded of the early days of your faith and how you loved the Lord and His Word and His people. Does such a memory exist? Does such a memory rekindle a longing to return to your first love? Then repent and do the first works. Get back into the race.
In the church in which I was raised, there was a man named Roger. As a fairly young man he was diagnosed with a desperately serious heart condition, for which there seemed to be little hope. I remember sitting around the dinner table one night and noting that my dad was not eating. When I asked why, he told me that he was fasting and praying for Roger. (This was my first exposure to fasting, so it took some explanation from my father.)
God was gracious, and miraculously healed Roger. Sadly, it was not long before Roger began to withdraw from fellowship. He had forgotten God’s grace to him. For a long time, Roger was nowhere to be seen. But one day, God did a work in his life. Roger remembered the former things, and God graciously restored him to fellowship. He began once again to do the former works. He was faithful in church attendance and ministry.
Roger died about six months ago, and I have no doubt that he was immediately ushered into God’s presence with the words, “Well done.”
Perhaps you need to remind someone else. Speak to them. Remind them of their former zeal and former affection. Remind them how they used to love to go the house of the Lord. Remind them of the sacrifices that they made and the joy that they had.
The writer mentions two specific areas in which their former identification with Christ was manifested in the context of suffering.
First, he says that they had formerly so identified with Christ that they were willing to be “made a spectacle both by reproaches and tribulations” (v. 33). In their early days of following Jesus they were willing to be publicly exposed to insult and injury.
We don’t know what form this took, but reading through Acts we might get a pretty good idea. They were perhaps beaten in some cases but probably here the reference here is to mockery. You can probably relate to this: slighting, things said to or about you as you identify with Christ—“crazy,” “self-righteous,” “killjoy,” “weak,” “arrogant,” etc. Perhaps you were deliberately passed over for a promotion or your family ridiculed your faith. Nevertheless, undergirding this perhaps painful reminder was the reality that they had endured. God enabled them to persevere. What an encouragement!
Second, he says that they had formerly identified not only with Christ, and therefore suffered, but they had also identified with Christians and therefore suffered (vv. 33a–34a). “The accent falls upon ‘the persistence those addressed had shown in sharing the reproach and suffering of their fellow Christians.’”9
They made themselves “companions” with others who were similarly treated with contempt for following Christ. This is a sweet word (koinonos) meaning “to share” or “to partner with.” Of course, we get the word “fellowship” from it. He is reminding them of their former days when they were willing to be identified with God’s people rather than being ashamed of them. In fact, they were so committed to Christ and to His people that they identified with their sufferings in two public ways.
In Prison You Visited Me
For one, they were willing to identify with those who had been imprisoned for their faith. This, of course, reminds us of our Lord’s words in Matthew 25:36–40. F. F. Bruce explains,
Prisoners who had no means of their own were liable to starve unless their friends brought them food and whatever other form of help they required; throughout the whole age of imperial persecution of the Church the visiting of their friends who were in prison was a regular, though dangerous, duty of Christian charity.10
They compassionately cared for them at great personal cost, both materially and with reference to their own reputation. They risked all for Christ.
All to Jesus I Surrender
A second way in which they identified with the Christians was that they “joyfully accepted the plundering of [their] goods.” Though they were plundered, they were joyful that that they could do so in community! You see, they understand that their treasure was in heaven and that is all that really mattered. Their worldview was healthy because it was holy and therefore they were biblically happy. They found Matthew 6:19–21 and Matthew 6:33 to be convincingly true.
As Brown notes, “Christians need to remember that adversity is rarely a vicious enemy; it is often a valuable ally. It reminds us of the imperishable things which matter most of all.”11
Perhaps the reference here is to the government confiscating the property of these “heretics.” But most likely it has reference to the general populace plundering them after their expulsion from their homes.
This is precisely what happened in 49 AD when the Emperor Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome (18:1–2). Roman historian Suetonius recorded that this was due to the Jewish conflict over one named “Chrestus” (Christ). As the Jews were banished many had to leave everything behind and this was subsequently plundered by the masses. Apparently these believers openly identified with Christ and were most happy to leave all to follow Christ into banishment. It reminds me of the scene in Acts 11:19–23 (see also 8:1–4). Those believers also lost all yet went forth boasting in Christ! Because they knew they had the possession of Christ who is seated in heaven, they counted it joy to lose all for Him (see Matthew 5:11–12; Philippians 3:7–11; Acts 5:41; 16:25).
All of this was the attitude displayed at a former time by these Hebrew believers. The writer wants to stir up the same joyful perseverance now. Nothing had changed since they first believed. Jesus was still in heaven, still God, still their Saviour. The gospel was still true and Jesus was still worthy of their all. Their faith should still persevere.
And you? Do you remember? Does such a memory stir you to perseverance? Does it stir you to return to your first love? If so, then return to the first works. Reconnect with the Body of Christ. Renew your devotional life. Reengage in service to the Lord. Remember, repent, run the race and rejoice! Persevere!
We Must Look to the Future
Second, in vv. 35–37, we see that we must look to the future: “Therefore do not cast away your confidence, which has great reward. For you have need of endurance, so that after you have done the will of God, you may receive the promise: ‘For yet a little while, and He who is coming will come and will not tarry.’”
What was articulated in vv. 32–34 is now applied, but with a bit of a different emphasis. Having spoken of their past endurance, he now exhorts them to keep on enduring (v. 36) but here the emphasis is upon their future.
He speaks of the “great reward” that is “promised,” which they hope to “receive.” This is future-oriented. To solidify this future aspect, he quotes a conflagration of Isaiah 26:20 and Habakkuk 2:3.
This quotation is from the Septuagint, and so it reads differently than in our English Old Testament. Under the inspiration of the Spirit, we are told that the “vision” (Habakkuk 2:3) for which Habakkuk was to wait was ultimately that of the Lord Jesus Christ. As Morris comments, “The author is using the LXX to bring out the truth that Christ will come in due course. In the intervening time, the readers must patiently await him.”12
But in what sense are we to understand His “coming”?
One possibility is that they are being told that Jesus Christ did in fact come and therefore they have every reason to persevere. God promised the Messiah and delivered the Messiah—literally.
Another idea is perhaps that of the promised second coming of Jesus—His final return to earth. But this seems out of context.
Rather, the coming referred to is His predicted coming in judgement of Jerusalem. The writer is saying that they need to persevere; they must not “cast away [our] confidence” because faithful perseverance will be rewarded. Guthrie says that this phrase “means to cast or fling away as one throws out rubbish which is no further use.”13 On the contrary, Jesus will keep His promise and they will be vindicated.
In summary, this is what the writer is exhorting,
You began the race (relationship, in fact) well. Remember that and take heart. Keep doing well. Don’t cave into the temptation to dismiss your confidence in Christ as mere rubbish; it is not! Your bold confession of Christ will be rewarded. You will be vindicated. If, however, you return to the ways of the old covenant then, though life will be more comfortable, it will be at an inestimable cost. Be bold!
This matter of “boldness” or “confidence” is a major theme in Hebrews (3:6; 4:16; 10:19). This, in many ways, is the whole point. He wants them to believe and to be bold about it. He wants them to boldly come to Christ because they believe Christ. They should not be hesitant about their love for Him and therefore they must not be hesitant to openly live for Him. Though perhaps many of their family and fellow kinsmen are drifting away, they must not. They must return to their former ways and, regardless of the cost, must identify with the one who is their Mediator, their Advocate, and their High Priest. Such bold faith will indeed be rewarded. Their faith will be vindicated. As Boice writes, “Victories in such sufferings are eternal in the same way that the victory of our Lord upon the cross is eternal. Our sufferings endure for a moment, but they achieve an eternal victory.”14
I am deeply disappointed that nearly all of the commentators I have read misinterpret this passage as a reference to the final return—the second coming—of Jesus Christ. It is not. Rather, it is contextually connected to the then-imminent destruction of Jerusalem.
We need to see that, when Jesus prophesied this destruction, He was staking His reputation on its fulfilment. He said that heaven and earth would pass away but His Word would not (Matthew 24:35). In other words, the first century church was to count on His prophecy being fulfilled in their generation. This, of course, is not to deny the promise of His final return. The second coming is prophesied. It will happen. But one reason we can be so confident about that future coming is because of Jesus’ past coming. He came in judgement nearly two thousand years ago and He will come in final and personal judgement one day in the future. Count on it. And if you do, then live like it.
Jesus and His church will be vindicated in space-time history. Keep persevering. Ignore the taunts of Dawkins and Hitchens and their fellow atheist fools. Don’t cast away your confidence. Boldly proclaim the gospel. Boldly keep God’s commandments. Boldly swim upstream against a godless and dead and dying culture. For if you do “the will of God,” you will receive the promise!
But One More Thing
The writer says that they “have need of endurance.” Yes you do. Yes I do. The words “have need of” means more than being merely desirous of, but rather speaks of absolute necessity.
Andrews observes importantly, “Endurance is a mark of reality, a characteristic of true spirituality. Christ himself ‘endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down on the right hand of the throne of God’ (12:2)—and this same quality of endurance will mark the lives of the elect.”15
We need perseverance, for it is the means to the end of knowing and loving Christ. We therefore need trials. We need difficulties. For it is only as our faith is tested that it can be truly trusted.
So don’t complain and grumble about the difficulties. Rather, see them as God’s good gift to grow your faith so that He can show your faith as being real. Such is a wonderful “reward”—the reward of God being glorified by our obvious faith in Him.
We Must Live in the Present
Finally, in vv. 38–39, we see that we must live in the present: “‘Now the just shall live by faith; but if anyone draws back, my soul has no pleasure in him.’ But we are not of those who draw back to perdition, but of those who believe to the saving of the soul.”
Having discussed the past fortitude and the future fruit of these believers, the writer now ties it all up by addressing their present faith.
He completes the thought of Habakkuk introduced in v. 37 by quoting Habakkuk 2:4. And he does so in order to tell these believers how they should now live. He assumes that they want to persevere (and that they will persevere, v. 39), but now he tells them the means by which they will persevere: by faith.
Though they know that the future will provide their vindication, they need to know how to live in the meantime. They must allow their future to inform and motivate their present. They are to live in the full sense of the word “live.” And that means that they are to live by faith.
In the next chapter, the writer pens the famed Hall of Faith. There, he will explain what faith is and what it practically looks like. We will see that faith is basically acting upon God’s Word because of confidence in His character. Faith is not passive; it is active. This is why he quotes this important verse from Habakkuk. We are to live (actively) by faith.
The writer has pressed the doctrinal truth that the new covenant is better than the old covenant. He trusts that his readers have come to appreciate that the old covenant, when it comes to being a vehicle of redemption, is obsolete (8:13). Now, He is deeply concerned that, having initially acted upon this truth, his readers continue to act upon this truth. And this will require faith. As Dods points out, this quotation is intended to drive home the exhortation that they “shall survive these troublous times by believing that the Lord is at hand.”16
They, and we, are being called upon here to live as though we believe the gospel. We are being called upon to live as though we have called upon the name of the Lord for salvation and as though He has heard and answered us. We are being called upon to live out our profession of faith in Christ in the face of difficulties and in the face of desperate and even dark times. The author’s selection of this passage could not have been more apropos. (Of course not; he is writing under the inspiration of God!)
The phrase “the just shall live by faith” is found three times in the New Testament (Romans 1:17; Galatians 3:11 and here). It is lifted from Habakkuk 2:4.
Perhaps the history of the church has no better verse in which to be grounded than this one. The Protestant Reformation marched to the tune of this verse having been the verse that God used to lead Martin Luther to Him. Luther’s commentary on this verse was his expositional commentary on Galatians, which God then used two hundred years later in the conversion of John Wesley. And from this conversion, we can trace the eighteenth century Great Awakening in England. But do you know the background of this verse? If we will more fully understand and effectively apply this passage in Hebrews, we need to understand the context of Habakkuk.
Habakkuk was written during the rise of the Babylonian (Chaldean) Empire. This commenced roughly around 605 BC when Babylon routed Egypt at the battle of Carchemish. God revealed to Habakkuk, as He did to other prophets, that He would use the Babylonians to destroy Jerusalem and to carry most of its inhabitants into captivity. This was due to God’s covenantal faithfulness in response to Judah’s covenantal unfaithfulness (see Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 28).
Habakkuk is given this terrifying vision of the Chaldean army bringing havoc upon his beloved people. He is horrified. He cries out to God, as recorded in chapter one. Habakkuk wants to know how God could do such a thing and desires to know how long until the Lord will deliver them. After asking for answers (and he does cry out in humility and not with irreverence) Habakkuk then sits down, as it were, and awaits God’s reply. This is where we find him in chapter two. He has spoken up; now will God answer? And if so, how will He answer? God does answer, and His answer is filled with both horror and with hope.
God tells Habakkuk that he is to be a faithful prophet and to declare what has been revealed to him. Yes, the prophecy will come to pass (vv. 2–3). Babylon will come and will destroy Jerusalem and will carry away captive many people. The temple will be destroyed, just as Isaiah had prophesied to Hezekiah. The ones bringing this destruction are guilt of being proud. The Babylonians, along with ungodly Jews, have no faith in Yahweh; rather, they have faith in themselves. So how will those in Jerusalem survive this judgement? By faith (v. 4).
As you read the other prophets of this time period, especially Jeremiah, God made it very clear that this judgement was inevitable; it was inescapable. But it was endurable. If the people would submit to God’s prophetic Word, it would go well with them in Babylon. If not, they would be destroyed.
To submit to an enemy because God commands you to indicates that you believe God and trust His Word. Those, however, who, like the Babylonians, are prideful will reject God’s Word. And they will pay dearly for this. This is what God meant when He said that “the just shall live their faith.” By submitting to God in the midst of difficulties, they would escape the sword of Babylon. And if they did so for the next seventy years, they would be saved.
Later in chapter 2, the Lord reveals that the day was coming when Babylon itself would be destroyed—by God Himself. This would require quite a lot of faith on the part of the Jewish remnant. In fact, God makes the wonderful promise that the day is coming when the “earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea” (2:14). The remnant was to be faithful. They were to believe this promise. They were to believe God. And by believing, they would persevere. Yes, times would be difficult, even horrific. But the times were to be characterised by hopefulness as they hung on to God’s prophetic word.
Now, fast forward some 600 plus years. God’s remnant was once again facing a Babylon. Peter refers to this Babylon (1 Peter 5:13) and John writes about it as well (Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:1–2, 10, 21; 19:1). Neither of them is speaking of Chaldea, nor of Rome. Rather, they are speaking of what had been their beloved great city, the former city of God: Jerusalem.
As we saw over and again in the book of Acts, Jerusalem and Jews were the epicentre of the church’s greatest foe. And now things were getting worse, just as Jesus had said (Matthew 24).
It is because of this historical parallel that the quotation from Habakkuk is so relevant. As in that case, so now. Things were going to get worse. Horrific things were going to occur. God’s people were going to suffer. But as with the original prophecy—in fact, in fulfilment of that prophecy—God was going to do a great thing. The earth was going to be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord. There was going to be the spread of gospel blessings. The gospel of God would indeed be the means by which the glory of God would cover the earth. All of God’s glory would cover all of the earth! The old, corrupt, unfaithful geopolitical Jerusalem would be replaced with the “heavenly Jerusalem” (12:22), also known as the “church of the firstborn” (12:23). Yes, the writer, like Habakkuk, understands that the days were growing difficult, but they must humble themselves under the mighty hand of God and faithfully live in these times. If they had been justified by faith in Christ alone, they must persevere by faith in Christ alone. “Endurance, the soldier’s fortitude, is the mark of those whom God regards and righteous. Keeping on believing is the same as keeping on living.”17
This is “just” how the just live. They live by faith. How is yours?
This is so relevant for you and me—perhaps even more so. You see, the promise has not changed, and neither has God’s faithfulness. He will establish His kingdom. All of Christ’s enemies will be a footstool for His feet. Every knee will bow to Him and every tongue will confess that He is Lord, to the glory of God. Yes, the knowledge of the glory of the Lord will cover the earth. At the same time there are still babylons with which we must contend. There is plenty of opposition to this promise. How then will we persevere? By faith. We will make a difference, just living faithfully.
Having made a passionate pastoral exhortation (commencing in v. 19), the writer concludes with a final word of encouragement; a word that also serves as a word of warning.
He says that he is convinced that his readers are “those who believe to the saving of the soul.” He is convinced that not only have they started well, but they will also finish well. In other words, he is confident that their souls will be “preserved” eternally. Their past and their present indicate that their future is as bright as the gospel. As MacArthur well says, “the suffering they might endure would not last forever, but their salvation in Jesus Christ would.”18
The author is thrilled that they were not like those “who draw back to perdition.” Some had drifted away, even to the point of apostasy. They no longer gathered with the Body; in fact, they had forsaken the assembling together. They had returned to the dead works of dead sacrifices rather than embracing the eternal work of the everlasting High Priest, the Lord Jesus. Their end would be, literally, destruction.
How terribly sad it is to be so close and yet to die so far away—and to remain so eternally.
Perhaps you are perilously close to making the same fatal error. Repent before it is too late. “He who is coming will come.” Will you be ready?
But believer, be assured that “He who is coming will come” for you at death, and one day He will come to offer up His glorious kingdom to the Father. Until that time, live by faith by remembering the past and while anticipating this future. What a glorious day that will be when you hear the words, “Well done!”
- R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 2:51. ↩
- Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 191. ↩
- William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:297. ↩
- Hughes, Hebrews, 2:54. ↩
- John F. MacArthur, Jr., Hebrews: The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1983), 281. ↩
- Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:109. ↩
- Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 380. ↩
- Edgar Andrews, A Glorious High Throne: Hebrews Simply Explained (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2003), 329. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:300. ↩
- F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 270. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 193. ↩
- Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12:111. ↩
- Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 225. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 389. ↩
- Andrews, A Glorious High Throne, 332. ↩
- Marcus Dods, The Expositor’s Greek Testament, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988), 4:351. ↩
- Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 118. ↩
- MacArthur, Hebrews, 282. ↩