Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a French mathematician, physicist and inventor. He in fact invented the mechanical calculator, which is known was the Pascaline. But most importantly, Pascal was a Christian, and a deeply devoted one. He was a Christian who thought deeply. He is known as a Christian philosopher and is famous in church history for his work Pensées (“Thoughts”). This work, like Augustine’s Confessions, recorded deeply important insights into the life of the believer. Amongst some of his most famous quotes is this: “There is a God-shaped vacuum in the heart of every man which cannot be filled by any created thing, but only by God, the Creator, made known through Jesus.”1 I wonder if this thought did not arise from his meditations on Hebrews 4, for this is precisely the point that the writer is making. The Lord Jesus Christ gives rest to the weary by filling the void created by our sinful rebellion. Jesus Christ reconciles us to God. The gospel is the means of filling that “God-shaped vacuum.” And the sooner that we realize and respond to this truth then the sooner we will have rest.
Is it not true that restlessness fills our age? Recently the annual Consumer Electronics Show was held in Las Vegas. All kinds of apps and electronic inventions were displayed for sale. I suppose that each invention or improvement is supposed to make our lives simpler and more fulfilling. But as Pascal observed, the restlessness which we have cannot be solved by any created thing. Our only hope for rest is found in trusting and obeying God through the Lord Jesus Christ. Apart from Him, the story of our lives is one of unresolved restlessness. The hope of the gospel, however, is the promise that we can know the rest of the story.
It is important to explain what this rest is and what it is not.
The writer to the Hebrews was deeply concerned about his readers’ spiritual condition. He was concerned that some of them had made a profession of faith—but an empty one. Some apparently were giving in to the temptation to go back under the old covenant as a means to securing salvation, thereby turning away from Christ. They were rejecting peace with God for spiritual restlessness. His goal was that they would see the superiority of Jesus Christ and trust Him alone for forgiveness from sins. Peace with God by the reconciling work of Jesus was his goal for these readers.
This is the rest of which he writes in chapter 4. Though no doubt he would be happy for them to be healthy and to experience material blessings along with a minimum of troubles, nevertheless this was not the kind of rest for which he was primarily concerned. And this should not be our primary pursuit either.
As we saw previously, the gospel is an invitation to spiritual rest; and such rest is the foundation for all other forms of rest as well. Jesus invites the restless to come to Him for forgiveness and reconciliation with God. It is the lack of such forgiveness and reconciliation which is the cause of our restlessness. Sinful rebellion makes us restless. The gospel is the story of God’s rest offered to hell-deserving sinners, and this epistle to the Hebrews exhorts us to embrace it. So how can we enter this rest? We will look at several truths which, if embraced, will enable us to enjoy the rest of the story.
- We must realise that there is a story (vv. 8-10)
- We must respond positively to the story (vv. 11-12)
- We must reckon on giving account of our story (v. 13)
You Must Recognise that There is a Story
Verses 8-10 remind us that there is in fact a story—a metanarrative to life.
For if Joshua had given them rest, then He would not afterward have spoken of another day. There remains therefore a rest for the people of God. For he who has entered His rest has himself also ceased from his works as God did from His.
Christians live with the conviction that there is a metanarrative to life. That is, we believe that there is an overarching storyline running through history, and that the God, as revealed in Scripture, is its Author and Director. In other words, we believe that life has meaning and that life is bounded by absolute truth. This storyline is from generation to generation. There is continuity to life.
The writer to the Hebrews obviously believed this, for he exhorts his contemporary readers by referencing historic events and texts. These texts were considered authoritative. In fact, throughout the book he quotes forty such texts to substantiate the arguments he puts forth. The one that we have been noting with particular interest is Psalm 95.
This ancient text referred to the historic events surrounding Israel’s refusal to enter the Promised Land, thereby forfeiting the promised rest from God. David used this story to exhort his own generation that they dare not miss the promised rest from God. But it was ultimately to the generation addressed in the first century that this rest was most clearly available. For as the writer proves, this rest is not to be found in a piece of real estate but rather in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, God’s Son (vv. 9-10). (Note the progression of argument from 3:7ff.)
Now, think about that. This ancient story was deeply relevant to the first century Hebrews. And by virtue of the fact that it has been preserved for us means that this story is as equally relevant to you and me. Their story is our story. In fact, that is precisely the argument of Hebrews 3:7—4:13.
But let’s face it: Many in our day reject such an assertion. For many life, is not lived under a cohesive metanarrative but is rather a story of disconnected (and hence meaningless) chaos. Many in our day do not believe that there is any metanarrative and many mock any idea of God’s metanarrative shaping our story. Many simply therefore see life as meaningless without any authoritative guide, word or text for life.
Ravi Zacharias notes that the “idea of God’s nonexistence now either explicitly or implicitly permeates almost every major discipline in secular universities”2 and the fallout is that such a God-less worldview trickles down to society at large.
Now, I understand that many in our day do not give deep philosophical thought to this matter, but what was thought up in academia has so filtered down to every man that our vocabulary of meaninglessness is prevalent. We hear people say and claim to actually believe such nonsense as “every person’s beliefs are as valid as another person’s beliefs. Therefore we cannot say that someone is wrong.” We hear such incoherent statements as “pray to whichever god you want.” What is actually being confessed is that life is meaningless, for there is no overarching meaning. What has led to such meaninglessness? Perhaps for many it has been the unbridled pursuit of pleasure. Ravi Zacharias said that “meaninglessness does not come from being weary of pain, but meaninglessness comes from being weary of pleasure.”3 Hedonism has birthed a large family characterised by restlessness.
But whatever the reason, unless you come to grips with the facts of God’s story then you will never find rest. After all, if you are unaware of your purpose then chances are that you will never find it.
I was recently driving through the Johannesburg city centre and stopped at a red robot. As I watched pedestrians crossing the street, I began to think about them. I wondered how many of them had any sense of why they are here. Perhaps some believed that they were here to merely get by until they died. Others perhaps strove to accumulate enough for retirement. Still others were perhaps just hoping to make it through the day and perhaps hoping for just a ray of sunshine along the way.
What about you? Until you understand the story, you will never make sense of any of the chapters of your life.
So, what is this story? It is the story of God reconciling the world to Himself for His glory. At creation, all was at rest and then sin brought chaos and discontentment. Restlessness became pervasive. But then God revealed the promise of redemption and its consequent rest (see Genesis 3:15).
Everything from that point forward is the story of this rest coming into space time history in the person and work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. When Jesus came to earth He lived a perfect life in complete conformity to the law of God. He was betrayed, arrested, falsely tried and condemned to die as a common criminal. This death was carried out on a cross. But, when He died, something strange occurred. He cried out, “It is finished” (John 19:30) and entered into His rest. He was reclothed in His glory upon His resurrection and subsequent ascension into heaven, where He sits at the Father’s right hand. From there, He rules and reigns until the complete consummation of history upon His return in glory to judge the living and the dead. Those who have repented of their sin and who have entered into spiritual rest will be given glorified bodies to live on a glorified earth. Those, however, who did not enter such rest will suffer eternal torment in hell under the holy and righteous wrath of God.
This story, this metanarrative, can be summed up as creation, fall, salvation (redemption) and consummation. This is the story that you must come to realise. This is the story under which you are living your own story, whether you realise it or not. This is the only story that provides meaning in a very restless world.
Friend, you will never know the rest of the story until you come to grips with this story, this plotline of history. The second chapter of the story—the fall of man by sinful distrust of and disobedience to God—is the reason for the restlessness of this world; and if you are not saved, it is the reason for the restlessness of your own world. Though initially the heart-penetrating realisation of this story can be shocking and even horrifying, nevertheless such a confrontation with reality is necessary as preparation for the rest of the story.
So again, the writer is at great pains to make the connection between Psalm 95 and his contemporaries. And he does so because what has been written is every much as relevant to them as it was to the original audience. The storyline is the same. And it is the same for you and me.
You Need to Respond Positively to this Story
In vv. 11-12 we learn of the need for us to respond in a positive way to the story described above:
Let us therefore be diligent to enter that rest, lest anyone fall according to the same example of disobedience. For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Verse 11 sounds a note of urgency. It is the second exhortation we find in the epistle. As with the first exhortation (2:1-4), the appeal is that the readers not neglect the salvation that is being offered “today.” He is appealing to them to positively rather than passively respond to the story. If you will enter God’s rest—if your friends, family, coworkers, neighbours and fellow-students will experience the rest of the story—then a positive response is called for.
The word “diligent,” as we saw previously, means “to use speed,” and hence it implies making haste. In the light of the fact that the story is marching forward we must make the most of our opportunity to enter the rest of the story—immediately. If we do not then passivity will pave the way to hell. As someone has said, many will go to hell by simply doing nothing.
But once we have entered that rest we, of course, will desire to continue to enjoy the rest of the story. So let’s note two ways to do so.
By Reflecting on the Story
Verse 11 exhorts us to reflect on the story. “Let us therefore be diligent to enter that rest, lest anyone fall according to the same example of disobedience” (v. 11).
As I trust we are now persuaded, the rest of the story is Jesus. It is all about Him. This passage reveals that there is an experience and enjoyment of the Sabbath rest for those who believe on the Lord Jesus Christ. That is, this Sabbath rest is the outcome of being saved by the Saviour (see Matthew 11:28-30).
This theme of the rest of the story must be understood and embraced; it must be appreciated and appropriated. Once we do so then the story becomes clearer, and in fact the remainder of our story begins to have more coherence for we see it in light of God’s story. And with such coherence, with such cohesiveness, we can truly rest in the midst of an otherwise restless world.
Importantly, this Sabbath rest is both “already” and “not yet.” That is, just as salvation is at the same time (past, present and future) so is the rest that attends our salvation. We rest in the present, yet it is an imperfect rest. The future rest is yet to be realised; the rest we have now, though very real, is at the same time only a foretaste of that rest to come for all of eternity. In other words, salvation is quite literally the never-ending story.
So you need to know Him if you will indeed enjoy the rest of the story. How then can you do so? I believe that our passage provides a hint as to how to do so. It hints at the opportunity for a weekly repose for doing so.
Pascal said that “all men’s miseries derive from not being able to sit in a quiet room alone.” Well, the weekly Sabbath is a means for us to at least be “quiet.”
While it is true that many argue that the Sabbath commandment merely pointed to the Sabbath rest that we have in Christ and has therefore passed away, the problems with that interpretation are manifold. Let me note one particular objection to such a view.
The writer clearly infers that this rest is both present yet imperfect and awaits final consummation. And just as the Sabbath under the old covenant was intended to point to the Sabbath to come in Christ, so a weekly Sabbath continues to point us to the full Sabbath to come upon Christ’s return. Therefore, I trust you can see that we continue to need the Sabbath observance as we await the fulfilment of what is being foreshadowed in our day. As Phillips says, “There is something still to come and the Sabbath points not to what has already come in Christ but to what has yet to come in fulfilment as part of his future work.”4
I would argue that we need the weekly Sabbath in order to more fully embrace, experience and enjoy the rest that God has given to us in Christ. We need this sabbatismos if we will fully enjoy the rest of the story. To put it another way, we need 52 Sabbath rests in order to enjoy God’s Sabbath rest the other 313 days of the year. It helps us to remember the story.
Can such a bold (and countercultural) claim be justified from this text?. I believe so. In fact, I am persuaded that the sabbatismos mentioned in v. 9 undergirds the ongoing validity of the fourth commandment. It is precisely because the Lord Jesus Christ secured our rest that we continue to observe the Sabbath principle.
Without rehashing previous studies on this issue, I simply want to make the point that, even though the weekly Sabbath is not the main point of vv. 9-10, nevertheless the Sabbath rest offered in Christ, by extension, points to a weekly Sabbath. Let me explain.
The argument in chapter 4 begins by pointing us to the Sabbath rest that God enjoys and how we are invited to enter into it. In fact, we are commanded to enter.
Now notice that God instituted the weekly Sabbath observance because of His own Sabbath. Mankind is to have a weekly Sabbath to reflect on God and His work of creation (Exodus 20:8-11). Later, this was reinforced, for the nation of Israel, to include a weekly remembrance of their redemption from Egypt and hence their rest as a freed people (Deuteronomy 5:12-15).
The point I am making is that, under the old covenant, God’s people were to observe the fourth commandment primarily to reflect upon God as Creator and Redeemer. God had a Sabbath Day on which these particular aspects of His work were to be remembered and honoured. God’s story, as revealed under the old covenant, was remembered weekly on the Sabbath. And there is good reason for us to conclude that the same principle and practice remains under the new covenant.
Now, under the new covenant, Jesus, like His Father, has also done a work of creation and redemption (e.g. 2 Corinthians 5:17; James 1:18). And, like His Father, subsequent to this work He also entered into rest (v. 10). And He also has a Day!
It is unfortunate that some Bible translations and commentators apply v. 10 to believers. But since there can be no possible parallel between the reason for God’s seventh-day Sabbath (vv. 3-5)—namely, His perfect work of creation—and the works of sinners, I can see no good reason to interpret v. 10 in any other way than with reference to Jesus Christ entering His rest upon completion of His perfect work.
It is precisely because of Christ’s perfect work in the new creation and redemption that He is seated at the right hand of the Father (1:3). And since He is in an everlasting Sabbath we have been blessed with a weekly Sabbath observance (v. 9) in order to make much of His rest and, consequently, our rest in Him. It can be shown from other Scriptures that this weekly Sabbath is now the Lord’s Day—Sunday; the first day of the week; the day on which Jesus rose from the dead and the rest of the gospel became available to restless man.
I say this to make the point that the Sabbath rest into which the believer enters is to be regularly contemplated if the rest of the story will be ours. In other words, we need help lest we lose sight of so great salvation, and so the Lord has given to us a means towards this end. He has given to us a weekly Sabbath.
It is a travesty that the church has whittled the Ten Commandments down to nine. There is no biblical justification for annulling the fourth commandment simply because we now live in the new covenant. In fact, we ignore this commandment to our detriment. Though it is true that worship is our calling 24/7, nevertheless at the same time it must be honestly recognised that this is impossible. The consequences of sin and of living in a sin-cursed world are too pervasive for us to be able to focus intently on the Lord every hour of every day. That is why the Lord has given to us the fourth commandment. One day a week we are to rest from other pursuits (as legitimate as they are) and to reflect on what it means to have entered God’s Sabbath rest in Christ.
I don’t want to belabour this point, but I want to emphasise that God used far more words in giving this fourth commandment than He did any other commandment. Perhaps this should help us to reflect on its importance.
In short, Jesus has entered His Sabbath (as indicated by “it is finished” in John 19:30) and we are both wise and obedient (wise because obedient?) to honour the weekly Sabbath to the glory of God and to the good of our souls. I would go so far as to say that, unless we take such a Sabbath, we will lose sight of the story. We need weekly and corporate reflection on the story if we will benefit from the rest of the story. This is particularly the case as we are surrounded by a culture that denies such a story.
This first day of the week is a wonderful and gracious blessing—both individually and corporately—for us to enjoy more fully and meaningfully the rest that we have in Christ. As we say no to our own pleasures and yes to Christ’s pleasures, we learn how wonderful He is and how blessed is the rest we have in Him. This is the goal of worship (see Isaiah 58:13-14).
Let us thank God for such a sabbatismos and make the most of it. As we spend time in the Word, as we fellowship with one another, as we sing songs with Him, and as we eat at His table, we grow in a greater appreciation of who He is and of what He has accomplished and is accomplishing. And with such a glorious vision we find rest indeed for our otherwise sin-wearied souls. Let us make the most of this weekly opportunity to “be diligent to enter that rest.”
By Revealing the Story
In v. 12 we see another means for us to experience the enjoyment of the rest of the story; namely the Word of God. “For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart” (v. 12).
The Scriptures are essential for our benefitting from the rest of the story. In fact, apart from Scripture we will miss the rest of the story. The Scriptures reveal the story and this is why they are so precious and powerful. Since the Scriptures are God’s revelation of the story we will never know the rest of the story until we take them seriously. The Scriptures introduce us to the story; they are the story! This is the point of v. 12.
This verse is often quoted as a standalone text to encourage believers concerning the power of God’s Word. While there is much to commend such a use, we must first see that the context has Psalm 95 in immediate view. Psalm 95 is this particular “word of God” that has been in view since 3:7. It is Psalm 95 that the writer has been expounding as a means for his readers to enjoy the rest of the story. It is this word that he is convinced will reveal the true state of their souls; it is this word, just expounded, which he expects will encourage the true and reveal the false. It was this ancient psalm that the writer expected to get to the heart of the matter. Yes, the writer was persuaded that this ancient Word was the key to the rest of the story.
The writer’s point is quite simple: Psalm 95, being God’s Word, got to the heart of the matter concerning the problem of Israel in the wilderness; it got to the heart of the matter with reference to the Hebrews of David’s day; and it gets to the heart of the matter in the writer’s own day. And we can say with absolute confidence that it also gets to the heart of the matter in our day. God’s Word exposes our distrust in and our disobedience to God. It exposes our false profession of faith. But it does so in order to bring us to experience the rest that we are otherwise missing. It does that for those who need to come to Christ for justification and also for those who, having been justified, need to continue to come to Christ for sanctification. That is, God’s Word convicts us for forgetting the story and corrects us to get back to the story. It returns us to the rest of the story.
It is precisely for this reason that R. Kent Hughes can write, “Blessed be the double-edge sword of judgment and sanctification. God cuts us deeply that we might die. God cuts us again with His word, that we might live.”5
The practical point is simply that, apart from the revelatory nature of God’s Word, we will never find rest. But if we are properly exposed to God’s Word, and if we properly appropriate God’s Word, then we will be able to find rest. Let me apply this practically.
We need preaching. Ravi Zaharias asks, “How do we communicate the gospel to a generation that hears with its eyes and thinks with its feelings?”6 The answer is that we declare the Word of God, praying that God will turn their ears into eyes. As Colin Smith writes, “Scripture is God’s story, and it is the task of the Christian preacher to tell that story.”7
We need regular exposure to the exposition of God’s Word. Preaching is therefore to be at the centre of our corporate worship. Preaching God’s Word is the only hope—and a sure and effective hope—for the world.
But I must confess a couple of things at this point.
First, though I work very hard at what I do, I nevertheless sometimes feel guilty about what I am doing (or perhaps better, what I feel that I am not doing). I sit at my desk in my study several days a week studying the Bible, doing word studies of the text, and reading multiple commentaries on the passage I am due to preach. I spend several hours typing notes and a manuscript of the sermon (on average, around 5,000 words). Sometimes I am tempted to think that it is pointless because it seems so inactive and unproductive.
But at such times I remind myself that, at the end of the day, the Word of God is what God uses to transform lives, families, congregations, societies and the world. In other words, the Word matters—and therefore preaching matters. It always has and it always will.
And so biblical preaching is always relevant; it is always necessary—especially when it is marginalised.
This epistle begins with the reminder that God is still speaking in our day through His Son as revealed through His Word. We must never lose sight of this truth. In a day in which words are distrusted and emptied of their meaning, Christians must cling to the conviction that God’s Word is “living and powerful” and that it can get to the heart of the matter—literally. In fact, v. 12 informs us that God’s Word—the Word of the Creator—is thoroughly adequate to critique what is going on in our heart and its judgement is infallible. It exposes the true condition of the profession of our faith. It convinces us that we are the real deal or it convicts us that we are not. God’s Word reveals to us whether we have entered the rest of God in Christ or whether we are still wandering in the wilderness of distrust and disobedience. God’s Word has the ability to powerfully expose the idolatry of our restless hearts (sex, sports, things, people, etc.) while at the same time making us yearn for the rest that is ours in Christ. The Word of God can, when nothing else can, create in us a longing for the rest of fellowship with God while showing us the emptiness of life lived apart from Him.
Christian, you and I need to hear the regular proclamation of the Word of God. We need to be wounded so that we can be healed. Don’t neglect this!
And so, upon reflection, I realise that what I am doing really does matter. And it should matter to you.
But my second confession is connected to this matter. I am passionate about the need for people to listen and to pay attention to the preached Word. I am passionate about this because of what I have just noted. Since the Word of God is of absolute and eternal importance to both our justification and our sanctification, I can hardly bear to see people sitting nonchalantly disinterested in the Scriptures. There is too much at stake for me to not be passionate. If people are offended by my appeals to stay awake and to be alert, I would urge them to consider v. 12. A careful consideration of the centrality of God’s Word in God’s purposes should go a long way towards helping us to pay attention.
Granted, my passion may sometimes morph into sinful anger. When it does, there can be no justification but only sincere repentance brought about by God’s two-edged sword. But perhaps listeners can assist me by not being a means of leading me into temptation. Pay heed to God’s powerful and living Word!
In concluding this point, let me appeal to you to make the most of your opportunities to expose yourself to the Word. Prioritise corporate opportunities for exposure to God’s revelation and the rest it offers. Gather to be cut and cured so that you can be scattered to cut and cure the restless.
Of course, the preached Word is not the only means by which we are offered rest through the revealed Word of God. Certainly our own times of Bible reading are vital. Get into the daily habit of reading the Scriptures and of reading them thoughtfully. Study the Word and expose yourself to the initial pain of the sword, which will be followed by the pleasure of sanctification.
In summary, we must learn to love the Word of God. We must love to learn the Word of God. And we must love to live out what we learn from the Word of God. When this is true then we truly will experience the rest of the story, for these realities are essential to such an experience.
You Must Reckon on Giving Account of Your Story
Verse 13 tells us that we will each give an account of our own story. “And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are naked and open to the eyes of Him to whom we must give account” (v. 13).
This closing verse is a sobering, though sadly a much-ignored, truth. As Mark Dever observes with reference to preaching the gospel in a postmodern world, “the loss of the metanarrative above means the loss of the continuing person below. The postmodern loss of meaning results in a loss of the responsible self.”8 In other words, most people give little consideration to their accountability before a holy God; especially because they deny the reality of sin.
It has been observed that “the loss of a sense of sin in Postmodernia is in no small measure related to the loss of the knowledge of God.”9 Yet this verse makes it very clear that you and I will give an account to God for how we responded to God’s offer (command) of rest. Yes, there is coming a day of reckoning when God will ask, “What is your story?” If your story contradicts God’s story then you will be blotted out of the book.
Let me first address those who do believe in the metanarrative, those who believe that there is a story. Do you truly believe? It is clear from this passage that the writer is concerned primarily with those who profess they believe the story, yet the story of their life contradicts the rest of the story. They are restless because they are rebellious. Outwardly they may be squeaky clean, but inwardly they are restless because they do not trust Christ alone for salvation. And according to this verse, God is very aware. He sees them.
The word translated “open” is a word that connotes a thrusting by the neck. It was used of wrestlers, who pinned their opponent to the ground in submission. It was also used of a doctor who bent back the head in order to perform surgery. But most commonly it was used with reference to those who stood before a judge for sentencing. A knife with a very sharp point was tied to the neck in such a way that the point was just beneath the chin. This forced the individual to face the judge. He would have to face the verdict. He could not escape the pronounced judgement.
We too have to stand before the Judge: the God who created everything. How will we fare? Our only hope—and it is blessed hope—is if we have entered the rest of the story.
Don’t delay and don’t deceive yourself that you can deceive God. He sees through our disguises. Repent and trust Christ today.
And so in conclusion consider the story as revealed in this passage. It is a story which began with God offering rest to His people on the edge of Canaan (3:7-19). It continued through the story of Joshua leading them into Canaan (4:8). This story of God’s promised rest had another chapter added to it in David’s day (4:6-8). But that was not the last chapter; it was not the end of the story. The rest of the story began, quite literally, with the person and work of Jesus Christ in the first century, and the rest of the story is being written in our day.
And so, what will be the rest of your story? May the rest of the story be yours—today.
- Blaise Pascal, Pensées, http://goo.gl/RlNXCX, retrieved 12 January 2014. ↩
- D. A. Carson, ed., Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmoderns (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000), 21. ↩
- Ravi Zacharias, Cries of the Heart: Bringing God Near When He Feels So Far (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1998), 128. ↩
- Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 128. ↩
- R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 124. ↩
- Carson, ed., Telling the Truth, 26. ↩
- Carson, ed., Telling the Truth, 113. ↩
- Carson, ed., Telling the Truth, 146. ↩
- Carson, ed. Telling the Truth, 184. ↩