As we have come to see, this particular Psalm was written and sung in response to the sense of deep and heartfelt gratitude to God for His deliverance of Jerusalem from Babylonian occupation and captivity.
The Lord had enabled the people to rebuild, to restore and to repopulate the city of Jerusalem. And the result was deeply felt celebration. In a word, the effect of what God had done was worship—in spirit and in truth.
The entire Psalm is the response of a grateful people for God’s faithfulness to His covenant and therefore His faithfulness to them as His people. This appreciation of God’s faithfulness results in confident hopefulness. And such a disposition often finds expression in song—as it does here.
We, the new covenant church, have the same three reasons to praise God as the old covenant church did, as reflected here in Psalm 147: (1) God’s goal (vv. 2-6); (2) God’s governance (vv. 7-11); and (3) God’s grace (vv. 12-20).
We saw previously that this Psalm, though it had a specific historical setting, also has a very relevant application to the church of our day. The new covenant church is “the Israel of God” (Galatians 6:16) and is also referred to as “Mount Zion,” “the heavenly Jerusalem” (Hebrews 12:22-24) and “New Jerusalem” (Revelation 3:12; 21:2, 10). The parallels between old and new covenant Jerusalem are many, though we also recognise some discontinuity. For instance, the Jerusalem that the writer of this Psalm referred to was a physical city, whereas New Jerusalem is a spiritual city (though made up of physical people who inhabit physical geographical locales).
Both cities are vital to the goal of God, which is that His name be hallowed, His kingdom come and His will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Therefore, when we look at the new covenant church/city with all of its brokenheartedness, with all of its wounds and sorrows, and when we perceive the new covenant church and local churches seemingly in captivity, we can read this Psalm, contemplate what God did for His old covenant people, and find hope for what He can and will do for us. The result, of course, is that we will praise the Lord (v. 1).
In this study, we move into the second reason why we are to praise the Lord, and the reason is because of the certainty of God’s governance. In this passage, God’s people are once again encouraged that the God who controls what happens in the atmosphere (see vv. 4-5) can most certainly be depended upon to care for His Church. In fact this is a consistent theme in each of the three major sections of the song. Leupold notes, “The motivation for praise regularly includes two areas in each of the three sections of the psalm—what the Lord does in His universal government of the world as well as what He does for His people” And it is for this reason that “praise itself is a pleasant and most delightful and proper occupation.”1
Again, it is to be observed that the overall reason that this writer praised the Lord (while also exhorting the church to do so) was because of the wonderful work of restoration that God did with reference to Jerusalem. He had restored them—because God will always accomplish His goal, His purpose(s). Here, in vv. 7-11 we are reminded that God accomplishes His goals because ultimately He governs everything that happens in this universe.
Previously, we spent some time contemplating how vast the universe is, and yet the Lord knows the whereabouts and the identity of every one of the trillions upon trillions of stars that exist (vv. 4-5). In the passage before us now, this thought of God’s sovereignty is brought closer to home as the psalmist celebrates the Lord’s governance of grass and animals as well His sovereignty over the armies of the world. In other words, whereas vv. 2-6 used a Hubble Telescope to encourage us to praise the Lord for His sovereign power, vv. 7ff encourages us to praise the Lord by a walk in through nature and as we read the daily news. Both of these encourage us that the Lord will build and—restore—His church. His will will be done on earth as it is in heaven. His kingdom will come. His name will be hallowed. After all, as I trust that we will learn today, God governs everything for His glory.
We are to Be Thankful for God’s Governance
We learn in v. 7 that we must be thankful for God’s governance. The psalmist writes, “Sing to the Lord with thanksgiving; sing praises on the harp to our God.” More specifically, we are to be thankful to God for His governance and to express this thankfulness to Him. And we are to do so always (1 Thessalonians 5:18).
The crescendo of praise is growing with the progression of the Psalm. In this section, the musicians are now a part of the praise choir. Those who love God and His city are instructed to sing praise to the Lord “on the harp.”
This “harp” or “lyre” was a small U-shaped instrument, much like a mini-harp, with strings to be plucked to make music. This indicates, by the way, that musical instruments are certainly acceptable as a means to worship through song. John Phillips comments, “We should summon song and skill to praise God. Our vocal expressions of joy can be amplified with instrumental accompaniment.”2
I am baffled at how the idea ever spread that musical instruments should not have a part in corporate worship. They are here prescribed by God, and so the regulative principle should acknowledge this. Though it is true that musical instruments and musicians can feature too highly, that is no justification for throwing out the baby—or the guitar—with the bathwater of pride. In fact, if instruments aid us in our singing praises to God, then the more the merrier!
But in addition to the element of musical instruments introduced here, the psalmist also adds to the musical mix the matter of thanksgiving. Those who love God and His city are instructed not only to sing to the Lord, but to do so with thanksgiving. That is, we are to humble ourselves and to express heartfelt thanks to God—regardless of our circumstances. And the reason is because our circumstances are ordained of God. He governs them all.
I want us to pause here to consider the larger context of this psalm. This thanksgiving comes in the context of repatriation to, rebuilding of, restoration of and repopulation of the city of God. The reason that all of this took place was because God governs all. God worked in the world politically, economically, militarily, etc. in order to accomplish this work with reference to His church. And it was in this context of God’s governance that His people were to praise Him.
In the light of all that God had accomplished through His governance for their repatriation to Jerusalem, the returning remnant had plenty for which they could be thankful. The Lord had fulfilled His promises, and by His gracious power the city of Jerusalem was making progress toward restoration. The Lord had healed their broken hearts and had assuaged their sorrows. Yes, they could sing praises to God with thanksgiving. And the biblical record verifies that they did just that. But this is not the whole story. For a fuller version of the story we need to turn to Ezra 3. And as we do so we will see that, for many, this is a harder assignment than v. 1. To verbalise praise to the Lord is difficult enough when things are going wrong, but to do so with thanksgiving is even more difficult. Nevertheless, we are called to do so.
Thankfulness is not a common quality in our day—even amongst believers. But the Bible makes it very clear that we are to give thanks in everything, because this is God’s will for those in Christ Jesus (1 Thessalonians 5:18). At least 35 times we are instructed in Scripture to give thanks to God. Perhaps the reason for the frequent admonitions is because we are so slow to obey and we need the oft repeated reminder.
We need to consider that the Lord had done a wonderful work amongst these people, but there was still much work to be done. They were a long way from the glorious days of Solomon and yet they were exhorted to give thanks to God even in the day of small things.
One of the temptations that we face is that of unhealthy comparisons. The returning remnant faced this as recorded in Ezra 3:10-13. The result was that the people of God were confused; there was an uncertain sound. The people did not know whether to rejoice or to cry. Should they be thankful or mournful?
We’re Marching to Zion
Of course, those who were new to what God was doing were ecstatic. They were grateful that the Lord had enabled them to make progress in the kingdom by laying the foundation of the temple. They had high hopes for the future (as well, no doubt, as for the present). They saw the Lord as being faithful to His promises and to His purpose. They had seen a wonderful work of God; they had full confidence that God would take them from strength to strength. In the light of all that they had experienced, what else could they do but praise Him!
Let those Refuse to Sing who . . .
But there was another group that was also present: those who had seen and therefore remembered the glories of Solomon’s magnificent temple. They remembered the gold and the ivory and the enormity of that structure. They remembered the beautiful cedar wood that lined the temple and the awe-inspiring stairs and courtyard. They remembered how things had been; they remembered the glory of those bygone days.
When they saw such a feeble (much smaller) foundation, they were heartsore that things had fallen to such a state. Gone were the good old days of Jerusalem’s past glory. Therefore, while the young believers were busy praising God from hearts overflowing with thanksgiving, they were weeping and wailing over their remembrance of, in the words of Barbara Streisand, “the way we were.” But there was a slight problem here: They had really poor memories!
I once heard a former athlete, in a moment of honesty, say, “The older I get, the better I was.” In other words, his memory was not so good. He remembers being better at his sport than he really was. The older believers in Ezra 3 had a similar problem. They remembered the days of glory under Solomon but there were two problems with this. First, none of them were alive during Solomon’s reign; and second, the years preceding the destruction of Jerusalem were horribly sinful. In fact, long before Nebuchadnezzar ever destroyed Jerusalem and the temple, the inhabitants of Jerusalem and Judah had already done a thorough job of spiritually and morally destroying both places. What can we learn from this?
Lessons to Be Learned
We should learn from this that we need to live in the present rather than in the past. The good old days were rarely as good as we remember them to be.
Do you mean the good old days when you had to search high and low for good Christian literature? Do you mean the good old days when a cultural Christianity dominated our land rather than a biblical Christianity? Do you mean the good old days when racism was tolerated—even encouraged—in many so-called churches? Do you mean the good old days when the vast amount of unreached people groups were not even on the radar of the average local church?
I trust that my point is clear: Our memories are sometimes very faulty. We tend to romanticise the past with the result that we are often unthankful for what the Lord is doing in the present. Our gazing on the “brilliant past” has blinded us to the glorious work of God in the present and all biblical hope for the future. Open your eyes and give thanks with a grateful heart!
Please allow me a practical point before we move on. The writer exhorts us to sing out our thanksgiving and to use instruments when we do so.
This would seem to be an appeal for corporate praise. “‘Sing’ is really ‘respond,’ i.e., to the Lord for what He has done. His goodness to us calls for appropriate response.”3 The New Testament likewise emphasises the need for corporate praise (see, for example, Ephesians 5:18-20).
When we gather to worship corporately, let us work hard at praising rather than complaining. Let us consider one another and the need to help each other to see the goodness of God. Let us sing, not only to the Lord, but also to one another as this passage in Ephesians exhorts us to.
We are to Be Thoughtful of God’s Governance
Not only are we to be thankful to God for what His governance of everything for His glory and for our good but we are also to be thoughtful about God’s magnificent governance of all. In fact, if we are not thoughtful then it is unlikely that we will be very thankfully; at the least, we will be merely sentimental in our thankfulness. Verses 8-11 give us two reasons why we can be thankful about God’s governance of all.
In vv. 8-9, we are encouraged to praise God for His providence. “Who covers the heavens with clouds, who prepares rain for the earth, who makes grass to grow on the mountains. He gives to the beast its food, and to the young ravens that cry.”
In these two verses we are challenged to think about God’s governance of nature. As we do so, we will be thankful that He governs all that happens. Further, we are being challenged to argue from the lesser to the greater. That is, if God cares for these things then how much more does He care for His people!
Yes, God governs the rain and He governs the redeemed. He supplies grass for the animals and grace for His people. God cares for the ravens and for His remnant. Such contemplation of God’s providence goes a long way towards encouraging us in the Lord and in His purpose. And encouraged hearts result in thanksgiving on the harps.
The psalmist tells us that God “covers the heavens with clouds, who prepares rain for the earth,” which ought to be cause for praise. Sadly, as Phillips notes, “there is nothing we grumble more about than the weather, which should be one of our greatest themes of praise.”4
The writer speaks particularly of the clouds, and the rain that comes from them. He observes that it is the Lord who is responsible for this. It is interesting that people speak of “seeding the clouds” in times of drought, but has anyone ever reckoned on the fact that clouds must first exist before they can be seeded?
The Scriptures remind us time and again that it is God who controls the weather (we will see this again in the final section of this Psalm). Consider the following texts:
- Judges 5:4—Lord, when You went out from Seir, when You marched from the field of Edom, the earth trembled and the heavens poured, the clouds also poured water.
- Job 26:8—He binds up the water in His thick clouds, yet the clouds are not broken under it.
- Job 36:27-33—For He draws up drops of water, which distil as rain from the mist, which the clouds drop down and pour abundantly on man. Indeed, can anyone understand the spreading of clouds, the thunder from His canopy? Look, He scatters His light upon it, and covers the depths of the sea. For by these He judges the peoples; He gives food in abundance. He covers His hands with lightning, and commands it to strike. His thunder declares it, the cattle also, concerning the rising storm.
- Job 37:16—Do you know how the clouds are balanced, those wondrous works of Him who is perfect in knowledge?
- Job 38:34, 37—Can you lift up your voice to the clouds, that an abundance of water may cover you? . . . Who can number the clouds by wisdom? Or who can pour out the bottles of heaven.
The psalmist is helping us to see that the Lord controls the weather and He does so to help us to be thoughtful about God’s ultimate governance. That is, we are to be thoughtful of God’s providence.
Let me pause and explain the word “providence.” This is a word that we Christians often use, and yet it would be good to make sure that we know what it means. Wayne Grudem defines providence as “the doctrine that God is continually involved with all created things in such a way that He (1) keeps them existing and maintaining the properties with which He created them; (2) cooperates with created things in every action, directing their distinctive properties to cause them to act as they do; and (3) directs them to fulfil His purposes.” It is, as can be seen in this definition, an issue of God’s sovereignty. He maintains and cares for His creation. He provides for it everything it needs. He sees and supplies. In fact, He saw and therefore supplied. Waldron says of providence, “Providence means care or attention given to something beforehand.”5 That says it well.
As an illustration, consider the story of Abraham and Isaac in Genesis 22. After the Lord had supplied the ram in place of Isaac, “Abraham called the name of the place, The-Lord-Will-Provide; as it is said to this day, ‘In the Mount of the Lord it shall be provided’” (v. 14). In his providence, the Lord saw and provided before Abraham and Isaac ever reached the summit.
I do not want to belabour the point, except to say that, until we come to grips with the reality that everything happens under God’s immediate governance, we will not make much progress in thankful praise in all things.
It is quipped that an atheist’s most awkward moment is when he feels grateful but has no one to thank. Christians, in this sense, need to beware of practical atheism.
Again, as noted previously, the Lord here uses a physical example from the creation as a means to instruct His people about His obvious care for them. Looking to the clouds should be a means of encouraging God’s people that He indeed governs all. Our God really does rule. Our God reigns.
Before moving to the next verse, let us pause and be reminded that, though clouds are often not welcomed, without them we would have no grace. As the small cloud that Elijah saw signalled rain after famine during Ahab’s reign, we should pray for a small cloud of revival in places of gospel famine.
The same is true regarding the trials that we often face in our life. As the Puritan writer noted, “sometimes the Lord hideth the glory of the open heaven with clouds, that it may appear again with so much more new, fresh, and pleasant lustre.”6 So it is in our times of trials. The clouds at times seem thick and heavy and even threatening. And yet behind such “frowning providence” hides the providential and loving smile of God’s grace.
Consider these words of hymn writer William Cowper, a man who suffered much from the clouds of depression:
God moves in a mysterious way
His wonders to perform;
He plants His footsteps in the sea
And rides upon the storm.
Deep in unfathomable mines
Of never failing skill
He treasures up His bright designs
And works His sovereign will.
Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take;
The clouds ye so much dread
Are big with mercy and shall break
In blessings on your head.
Judge not the Lord by feeble sense,
But trust Him for His grace;
Behind a frowning providence
He hides a smiling face.
His purposes will ripen fast,
Unfolding every hour;
The bud may have a bitter taste,
But sweet will be the flow’r.
Blind unbelief is sure to err
And scan His work in vain;
God is His own interpreter,
And He will make it plain.
God also “makes grass to grow on the mountains. He gives to the beast its food, and to the young ravens that cry” (vv. 8b-9).
There is much that can be said with reference to the providence of God, but for our purposes I want to emphasise that these verses have reference to physical creation and how the Lord sustains what He has created. These are what we might call “happy providences,” as opposed to “unhappy providences” such as flat tyres, accidents and the like.
Under this heading (and these verses) we might also include the idea of common grace. This is a phrase that is often used to describe God’s kindness to all His creatures, even to those who are under His just condemnation. The term is used in contrast to special grace, which is also known as saving grace. For instance, though there are many whom God will not save, yet because God is love, He sends the rain on the just and on the unjust (Matthew 5:45).
In these verses, we are encouraged that Elohim, the special name of God with reference to His mighty work of creation, is the one who forms the clouds and sends the rain. It is He who makes the grass grow—even in out of the way places that most will never see—on the mountains. And why does He do so? Among other reasons, because the animals He has created need to be fed.
Just think about that the next time you are in a remote area where you see the various types of grass and foliage. The Lord has provided for the squirrels, the meerkats, the monkeys, the badgers, etc. But note also that God has also provided such landscaping simply for His own glory.
I remember how this came home to me in a powerful way while visiting uShaka Marine World in Durban several years ago. As the family and I were viewing the various aquariums we came upon one exhibit that contained some fish and marine life that could only be found several thousand metres below sea level. It occurred to me that, really, only a handful of brave deep sea divers and visitors to aquariums could enjoy this sight. But God can always do so. When you consider how small a percentage of people actually scuba dive it helps us to see that the beauty in the depths of the oceans is primarily for God’s enjoyment. The same can be said with reference to what occurs on most mountain tops, the world over.
Now, that might seem unbelievable, and it would be had the Lord not revealed this to us. But as we saw previously, if He knows the whereabouts of every single one of the trillions of stars, then we can rest assured that He also knows the location and the need of every animal, mammal, reptile, insect, etc. on earth.
When God created this earth He did so in such a way to make it, most likely, the only inhabitable planet in the universe. He created it in such a way that it sustains life.
We need to give serious thought to these verses rather than merely skimming through them. God makes the grass to grow on the mountains. He gives to the beast its food. He gives food to the young ravens that cry. Note that, though usually it is the mother raven who feeds her young, ultimately God is the chef! Someone online has written:
Despite their seemingly unsavory habits (“The eye that mocketh at his father . . . the ravens . . . shall pick it out,” Proverbs 30:17), and despite the fact that ravens are unclean food for Israelites according to the dietary prohibitions of Leviticus, ravens are fundamentally part of God’s plan and therefore good (“every winged bird according to its kind . . . was good,” Genesis 1:21). God’s grace extends to ravens, . . .” as is indicated in this verse before us.7
But why is this here? Why should we thank and praise the Lord because He sends the rain and makes the grass grow and feeds the ravens? Because if He so cares for His soulless creation, how much more does He care for those who are of His new creation? The Lord Jesus, in fact, made this very connection in Luke 12:22-34. Note how He used both ravens and grass to make His point that the Father cares for His own. The Father’s providence is used by Jesus to motivate us to invest in His kingdom (vv. 31-34). Now consider this same context back in the historical occasion behind Psalm 147.
When the Jews returned to Jerusalem after their captivity, they returned, for the most part, impoverished. It was because of this that they drew lots to see who would live within the city walls. If your number came up, you were not actually considered the winner but rather one who would be living a risky existence. Since the city had laid in ruins for so long, city dwelling was anything but luxurious. Those, therefore, who were tasked to live within the city walls would need, in a greater way, to trust the Lord for provision. This may be why this clause is inserted in this Psalm. The people of God were to be thankful to God and were to praise Him, bolstered by the confidence that the one who clothes the mountain with vegetation and who feeds the beasts and the ravens most certainly would care for His own. He would supply their need.
Ezra records a letter from Artaxerxes, which illustrates the Lord’s providence in this way. The king not only granted permission for Jerusalem to be rebuilt, but also supplied a great deal of wealth to help with the project (Ezra 7:11-27). Nehemiah records similar permission granted during his time (Nehemiah 2:7-8). God moved in the heart of pagan kings to accomplish His will.
We, the new covenant church, need the same encouragement. There are times when it seems as if our resources are not large enough to accomplish the work that we have been tasked to do. And yet the Lord who governs the earth has more than sufficient for the task. God is the ultimate Quantity Surveyor and He has planned abundantly for all that we need.
We would do well to take cognisance of the reality that the expansion of the kingdom of God for the hallowing of His name and for the living out of His commanded will on earth as it is heaven comes by the power of God, but that He has chosen to use the means of resources. And He has supplied these resources in His sovereignty. Those who invest God’s resources into His work, in accordance with His will, can be assured that He will provide for them.
We have seen the reality of this in our own church. Just about a year ago, our church was in the process of purchasing an additional property. We were trying to raise as much capital as possible so that we could keep a bond to a bare minimum. Despite the flailing economy, God graciously worked in the hearts of the congregation so that we were able, in the end, to purchase the property cash, with no need for any bond.
We are grateful to God for that wonderful accomplishment. But there are still needs that exist. And God is still clothing mountain tops with grass, feeding His beasts of the earth, and caring for His ravens. Therefore, we can conclude that those who invest sacrificially in God’s work will be provided for. The sooner we believe this, the sooner the resources needed in God’s work will be available.
We are wise to plan for the future, to plan for our children, and to plan for the exigencies of life. But how far do we go? Our investments, savings and assets can be wiped out overnight. Be careful!
Let us learn to be thoughtful of God’s weather and of His providential works. By doing so we will find ourselves increasingly trusting in and thus thankful to God. Such a disposition will thwart anxiety about our needs (see Philippians 4:6-7; 11-19).
Listen to the insight of Waldron, “Who, if anyone, enjoys God’s special care? Is it the famous, the great, the political leaders, the Jews? No! It is the church. This is an often veiled, but very comforting fact. Where is the focal point of God’s providence in the world? Is it Jerusalem, where the temple was? No! Is it Rome, at the Vatican? No! Is it Mecca? No, it is where we, the church, are. Do not imbibe a secular mentality as to what is important in life. It is for the sake of the church that everything in life happens.”8
In vv. 10-11 we are exhorted to praise God because He is not bound to the world’s value system. “He does not delight in the strength of the horse; He takes no pleasure in the legs of a man. The Lord takes pleasure in those who fear Him, in those who hope in His mercy.”
God is not impressed with raw military might but is pleased with those who love and serve Him. He is on the side of those who revere Him and those whose hope is in Him. Those who recognise His holiness and their own sinfulness are the ones who have Him on their side. That was really good news for this returning remnant.
The Jews before, during and after captivity were no match for their enemies. Fortunately, that did not matter because they had God on their side. And if God be for us, who can be against us?!
As you read the accounts of Ezra and Nehemiah, you soon note the onslaught by the enemies. Whether they were Chaldeans, Persians, Ammonites, Ashdodites or Samaritans, their power was militarily greater than that of Judah, and so God’s people were greatly mismatched. Nevertheless, the Jews had Yahweh on their side and that was enough. As long as they looked to Him and feared Him—and therefore obeyed Him—more than man, they were safe and secure in the knowledge that He would mercifully deliver them. And He did. The church of our day needs to be reminded of this. And our particular church needs this lesson as well. I need it. Do you?
Our day is little different from the days in which the remnant returned to Jerusalem, in the sense that most still live by “might is right.” The victory goes to the strongest. But God’s kingdom rules are different. In His kingdom, victory goes to the weakest—to those who are willing to admit their weakness and inability. The victory goes to those who have a well-developed fear. Such, according to this passage, hope in God’s mercy, and the implication is that such a hope will not be disappointed.
One of the most important truths for every believer to grasp is that God graciously chooses to save us in spite of us. That is, we really are saved by grace. And because of this we do not need to try and impress Him. It is when we confess our dependence that we are the most pleasing to Him. He takes pleasure in our meekness rather than in our might.
We can take encouragement from this that the Lord still takes pleasure in those who fear Him and who hope in His mercy. And, by the way, the two are the same.
Though we may at times be a bit discouraged, and perhaps even disillusioned, at the seemingly slow progress of the gospel, coupled with the seeming growth of the darkness, we must guard our vision of the Lord. He is not intimidated by the numerous legs of the enemy. He is not hampered by the latest poll in the UK that shows a continued drop in the number of professing Christians (down a further seven percent from 2001 ) any more than He is encouraged that in a recent poll only 180,000 are follows of the “Jedi religion” from an initial 400,000 in 2001! As the Lord encouraged the church of Philadelphia, He knows our little strength, and yet opens so that no one shuts and shuts so that no one opens. After all, He has the key of David (Revelation 3:7).
When you are tempted to despair at the state of the city of God, run back to the biblical accounts of what God did for His old covenant Jerusalem, and you will soon find yourself encouraged about the prospects for new covenant Jerusalem. In fact read the end of the story: Revelation 19—22.
We must never lose sight of the mercies of God. They are new every morning and His faithfulness is equally great every morning (Lamentations 3:23).
But perhaps I am assuming too much. Perhaps I am assuming that it matters to you? Is there not the very real danger of those of us who belong to Christ actually becoming so caught up in the world that we lose sight of God’s purpose for us, that we lose sight of what should be our passion?
May I offer a word of pastoral counsel? At this time of the year—especially—let us seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness. Let us work hard at praising Him. Let us work hard at prioritising the church and the local church. And, as we do so, may the Lord bless us with the encouragement, in the depth of our souls, that He will establish the city of God on earth for His glory, despite the strength of the horse and the legs of a man.
Yes, our Lord governs this world. Our God reigns. Praise the Lord!
- H. C. Leupold, Exposition of the Psalms (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1969), 989. ↩
- John Phillips, Exploring the Psalms, 2 vols. (Neptune: Loizeaux Brothers, 1988), 2:671. ↩
- Leupold, Exposition of the Psalms, 991. ↩
- Phillips, Exploring the Psalms, 2:672. ↩
- Sam Waldron, A Modern Exposition of the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 1989), 91. ↩
- David Dickson, Psalms: The Geneva Series of Commentaries (London: Banner of Truth, 1965), 522. ↩
- Answers.com, “What does a raven symbolize in the Bible?” http://goo.gl/3sW17. ↩
- Waldron, A Modern Exposition of the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, 91. ↩