I recently watched a commercial, via YouTube, aimed at promoting gender equality. A young man, a teen and a young boy were asked to “run like a girl.” They then asked some ladies to do the same and the commercial ended with the question put to a girl, aged about seven: “What does it mean to run like a girl?” She confidently answered, “It means to run as fast as you can.”
If the writer of Hebrews was asked, “What does it mean to run like a Christian?” I suppose that he would answer, “It means to run, not as fast as you can, but rather as faithfully as you can.”
BBC has a running club called Soul Striders. That’s a great name, for it extends into a physical realm what every member of BBC is called to do spiritually. We are to make strides—together—in the race of the Christian life. We are quite literally soul striders until we reach the finish line.
In his commentary on Hebrews, John MacArthur titles this passage “Run for Your Life.” Well said. The Christian life is a race for our life. The saving of the soul requires striding and striving for the soul. The Christian is a soul strider who strives for the salvation of his soul. And this is the theme of these opening verses, as well as all else that follows.
The writer has spent considerable time giving examples of those who, under the old covenant, ran the race of faith. All of his examples exhibited a faith-fuelled endurance believing the unseen God for promises that remained, for the most part, unfulfilled. Yet they ran the race. They lived their lives demonstrating that they were trusting God for eternal life as promised in God’s foreordained Messiah. It was this perspective that enabled them to endure though in this life, even though they “did not receive the promise” (11:39).
But his point is that the recipients of this epistle have received the promise; and of course so have we. Therefore, if they endured, how much more should we?
The Christian life is a race that is, quite literally, a matter of life or death. If we run to the finish line—endure to the end—then we will receive the reward of eternal life. However, if we drop out, then DNF (Did Not Finish) will haunt us for eternity in everlasting condemnation in hell. So, how should a Christian run? We should run with certainty (1 Corinthians 9:26–27). As the writer exhorts, we are to be soul striders who aim to be soul survivors. Yes, we are in a race; a race for our life.
We are in a race of endurance. May we run far, may we run faithfully, may we run to finish.
The Exhortation to Race
In v.1, the writer exhorts us to enter the race: “Therefore we also, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us” (Hebrews 12:1).
Encouraged to Race
The chapter opens with another one of the many “let us” statements in the epistle. The writer is exhorting his readers, corporately, to do something. And, of course, here he is exhorting them to “run the race.” But what race is this? It is the race, of course, of which he has been speaking about since 10:35: the race of faith, the Christian life.
The New Testament often uses athletic imagery to describe the Christian life (Philippians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 9:24–26; Galatians 5:7; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7). The particular Greek word translated “race” is agon, and is akin to the word agonizamai. It is translated as “conflict” or as “fight” or “race” in various passages of the New Testament.
Of course, we can hear in this term the English words “agony” and “agonise.” The predominant idea is that of striving as we stride. “Christians are called to participate in … ‘an athletic contest,’ and to do all that is necessary in order to complete the event.”1
The Christian life requires effort. Though it is true that, as we saw recently in Psalm 63, we are to let go and surrender our will to God, nevertheless if we will remain “glued” to God (Psalm 63:8), we must also “earnestly seek Him” (v. 1). The writer to the Hebrews understood this, and for this reason he exhorted his readers (including us!) to run the race.
The word “run” speaks of the effort expended to reach a goal. The Christian is to expend effort in much the same way an athlete does in a race. But this does not describe a sprint in which a burst of sudden and shortlived energy is required, but rather a long distance event, much like a marathon. In such a race, one must persevere over the long haul. This is precisely what the saints mentioned in Hebrews 11 did, and it is precisely what we are called to do as well. This is what is meant by the phrase “so great a cloud of witnesses.”
The word “cloud” speaks metaphorically of a large number; it is used figuratively of a great host. Hebrews 11 is only a small sample of the faithful soul striders (v. 32). But what does this terminology imply?
Spectators who Spur
The phrase may carry the idea of these Old Testament saints being spectators who are watching us and cheering us on—not literally, but rather by their example.
It refers to the historical reality that their acts of faithful obedience witness to the faithfulness of God. Since God was faithful to His old covenant people—which enabled them to run their race—He will most certainly be faithful to His new covenant people. And we too can run the race. God’s faithfulness to the old covenant team of soul striders is surety of His faithfulness to the new covenant team. “These witnesses who watch from the stands are those well qualified to inspire—they bear witness to the faithfulness of God in sustaining them.”2 And Bruce comments, “By their loyalty and endurance they have borne witness to the possibilities of the life of faith. It is not so much they who look at us as we who look to them—for encouragement.”3
Passing the Baton
It has been suggested that the word picture here is that of a relay in which the old covenant believers have handed the baton to the new covenant believers, and now it is their turn to run the race. The word “also” clearly points to this. The gospel promise that was given by God so long ago, and then so recently confirmed with the life, ministry, death, resurrection and ascension of Messiah, was now in the hands of the new covenant church. They were therefore exhorted to run the race, to run for their life. They were exhorted to live as soul strivers.
It would be good to pause to consider that there is an unbreakable continuity between God’s true old covenant people and His true new covenant people. Just as not every Jew was truly “of Israel” (Romans 9:6), so not every professed Christian, or every formal member of a local church, is necessarily truly in Christ. But those who were and those who are and those who will be are in one Body (11:39–40). This, in fact, is a dominant theme here in chapter 12 (see vv. 18–24).
This is practically important, for the sense of historical continuity adds weight to our stewardship of the gospel. May we, like Old Testament saints, be found faithful. May we too pass the gospel to the next generation. May we so live so as to be commended by God for the purpose of our lives commending God’s faithfulness to others.
With Water Points
Those who lived before Christ did not have as many advantages as we do on this side of the cross. We, in fact, have many aid stations of past examples that they did not have. So we are without excuse if we fail to run the race, if we fail to pass the baton on to the next generation of soul striders.
Entering the Race
The writer next exhorts that soul striders prepare for the race by shedding that which will keep them from running the race; specifically “weight” and “sin.”
If you were to see someone at a race fully clothed in heavy clothes and work boots, you would most probably conclude that they were not actually a participant in the race but rather a spectator. But if you then saw that person disrobe, put on his Newtons and head for the starting line, you would rightly conclude that he had entered the race. It would seem that the writer is exhorting his readers that, if they have not yet done so, they must enter the race; they must take seriously their opportunity to enter and to run. Further evidence of this is found in the phrase “the sin which so easily ensnares us.”
This is translated in the KJV as “the sin which doth so easily beset us.” This is a difficult Greek term to translate for it has a variety of possible meanings. However, the predominant meaning is “easily surrounding” or “easily encompassing.” It connotes an ever-present problem, an ever present sin. It is that which trips up or entangles the feet of the runner.
At the risk of being unwarrantedly dogmatic, we should let the context of the book determine the kind of sin to which he is referring. And that would be the sin of unbelief (see particularly chapters 3–4).
Unbelief is the particular sin that was surrounding these Hebrews. They were tempted to quit the race, and many were tempted to not even enter. The exhortation is that they “lay aside” (put off, put away) these hindrances and join the race—and that they join it with others. Let’s explore this some more.
He mentions two things that keep us from entering (or finishing) the race. The first one is “weight.” The word speaks of a mass or something bulky, which becomes a burden to bear. Runs in ancient times were often run naked, or very nearly so. Any excess weight hindered a successful performance. So with the Christian race. Dods comments, “The Christian runner must rid himself even of innocent things which might [slow] him. And all that does not help, hinders. It is by running he learns what these things are. So long as he stands he does not feel that they are burdensome and hampering.”4
A “weight” is not necessarily wrong or sinful. Rather, a weight might be a good thing that is not actually the best thing.
For example, sport is not a bad thing, but when it takes you away from serving the Lord then it becomes a weight. Jay Adams speaks of home-schooling being a good thing that can often become a hindrance to the kingdom because families become so isolated from everything, including their church. That is an example of a good thing becoming a weight. Of course, wealth and material prosperity is not necessarily sinful. But it can become a weight, which keeps one from entering the race. When that happens, it can indeed set one up for the sin of unbelief (Matthew 19:23–24; 1 Timothy 6:8–10).
Retirement can also be a weight that keeps people from entering fully into the race. The life of ease, comfort and travel can become a very selfish absorption, while the kingdom of God is neglected. I recently received an email from an elder in another church, who runs a training institute for young men. He has turned eighty, and his health is beginning to get worse, but he said that he wanted to use whatever time God still has left for him to train men. I commend that attitude. He could easily have chosen the life of ease, but he has instead opted to continue serving faithfully in his retirement years.
As you can see, there are many such bulky burdens that can hinder one from either entering or at the least interfering with a commendable performance of faith. Lay them aside! Put them off!
Weights and Liberty
But we also need to be careful that we recognise Christian liberty when it comes to “weight.” Bruce sounds a pastoral tone when he writes,
There are many things which may be perfectly all right in their own way, but which hinder a competitor in the race of faith; they are “weights” which must be laid aside. It may well be that what is a hindrance to one entrant in this spiritual contest is not a hindrance to another; each must learn for himself what in his case is a weight or impediment.5
Sin and Stumbling
When you get down to the foundation of “sin,” unbelief is at the cornerstone. Sin, of course, is disobedience to God’s revealed will. And the reason that we disobey is because we do not believe what God has said we should do or not do. Whenever we refuse to obey God’s will as revealed in His Word, we are guilty of unbelief and we either find ourselves exiting the race we claim we have entered or we find ourselves on the outside, continually rejecting God’s command to enter the race.
So let me ask, what is hindering you from entering the race? What do you need to lay aside that is keeping you on the sideline? What do you need to put off that will move you from being merely a spectator to becoming a participant? In other words, what in your life is more important than Jesus Christ? Put it off and become a soul strider.
Perhaps you were a soul strider but you have stopped running the race. It is not too late to get back in. Let go of whatever distracted you from the race. Listen to the exhortation; listen to the Holy Spirit and run the race. But let’s make one more observation before moving on.
Note that the exhortation is to run the race that is “set before us.” The exhortation is not merely a suggestion but a command. The Lord has set the course and He expects those who profess to be His followers to run the course. “It must be noted that contestants cannot choose their own race, for the race is ‘set before us,’ i.e. by God himself. It is on his programme.”6 Andrews helpfully observes, “We have not stumbled into the competition by accident, nor have we joined it of our own volition.”7 We are in the race by God’s grace. Therefore we have no right to alter the course or to make shortcuts but rather we are to run the race He has set out. To try and do otherwise is in the end to experience disqualification.
We are not permitted to alter the message of the gospel or to try and circumvent the way. We are to be faithful to God by being faithful to His Word. As you look back over the “great cloud of witnesses,” it is clear that they were commended because they did as God told them. They honoured what He had “set before” them. We must do likewise. Regardless of the cost, we are to run according to God’s rules. Be careful, for as Solomon warns, “There is a way that seems right to a man but its end is the way of death” (Proverbs 14:12).
Enduring the Race
Once we heed the exhortation to enter the race, we must then be prepared to be a soul strider for the long haul. This is clear from the words that follow: “Let us run with endurance the race that is set before us.” And here is where the tekkie hits the tar for a soul strider.
The word translated “endurance” can be translated “patient perseverance,” and of course it carries the idea of running until the finish. “It contemplates the weariness experienced by the distance runner, which can deter him from continuing the race.”8 Through thick and thin, through times of fatigue, the soul strider continues to put one foot in front of the other until he reaches the finish line. Again, the Christian life is not a sprint (though it may involve some sprints such as fleeing youthful lusts and pursuing righteousness [1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22, etc.]), but rather a marathon.
Perseverance of the Saints
I was asked the other day how can we know whether we, or someone else, have responded to the general call of the gospel or the particular call of the gospel. That is a good question. I believe a good answer is found in this matter of endurance. If someone has been genuinely called by God to salvation, he will “bear fruit with patience” (Luke 8:15). Finishing, not merely starting, is the measure of true saving faith.
There are many temptations along the way to quit the race. But the one who has entered by grace, who has entrusted his soul to the one who sets the race before him, will persevere, regardless of hardships, discouragements and fatigue.
I was recently running a half-marathon, and a man in the group of runners in front of me was carrying two bottles. I overheard him telling another runner that he has to carry his own bottles—and, when he runs the Comrades Marathon, he carries four bottles!—because he has Crone’s disease, and drinking the water provided along the route will make him sick. I know Crone’s disease—one of my nieces has it—and I was impressed to see that this man finished a long way ahead of me. He endured despite the difficulties that he faces.
Consider Noah, Abraham and Moses. Each persevered for decades in the face of enormous obstacles. But because they were convinced of the course God had set before them, they endured. So must we.
What obstacles have you faced in your race? Perhaps criticism, betrayal, slander, thoughtlessness, loss of stature, personal failure, unanswered prayers, chronic disappointment, tribulations of various kinds. Each of these things can serve as an obstacle to us finishing the race, but we must persevere through these difficulties.
On the other hand, there are also many positives that can also tempt us to quit the race. Jesus spoke of these as “the cares of this world” and “riches.” But the one who has truly entered the race will endure in the face of temptations to leave the race for the glitter and gold of the world. As Moses chose the reproaches of Christ rather than the passing pleasures of sin (11:24–26), so we must refuse such distractions as we run the race set before us.
The Empowerment for the Race
God has not left us powerless in the race. Instead, we can run “looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith” (v. 2).
When it comes to running this long distance race of faith, the soul strider will continually find the need for strength to endure. At least he should. And that is available in the one in whom our faith is anchored, the Lord Jesus Christ. This is clearly the author’s conviction as expressed in these words.
The word “author” is translated “captain” in 2:10. It can also be translated “forerunner.” Jesus is the Forerunner who goes before us. Therefore, when we keep our eyes on Jesus, we receive the power necessary to run the race. We will be empowered to persevere under the most severe of temptations to drop out. We might put it this way: The soul strider has been kitted with all he needs. It has been furnished by the one who is faithful. By faith we wear this supernatural kit, which provides supernatural power.
Where you look makes all the difference. It’s not so much how you look, but rather where you look, that makes all the difference. When I was an athlete many years ago, I soon learned that expensive and matching kits were not always an indicator of ability. The issue was how you ran the race.
There were many elements that were important, but one that my coach pressed upon me was to run my run my own race. He warned me to keep my eyes on the shoulders of the lead runners (he assumed I would always be behind someone!) rather than their feet. His theory was that if I focused on their stride, I would imitate it and this would throw off my own cadence.
But when it comes to the race of the Christian life, keeping our eyes on Jesus and His pace is precisely what we are called here to do. We are to be “looking unto Jesus” if we will finish our course with joy. As Lane points out, “from first to last Jesus exercised faith in an essential sense and brought it to its triumphant completion.”9
This is a really important point, especially in light of v. 1. There is a danger that we look too much at others (the great cloud of witnesses) when we need to be supremely focused on the perfectly faithful one, the Lord Jesus. As Brown notes, “Yet, although they inspire us, they cannot strengthen us.”10 Only Jesus can do that.
The word “looking” means “to consider intently.” It connotes a gaze. The Christian must stay focused on Christ if he will endure. The soul strider will never run this race to the finish if she relies on her own strength. She will become distracted from her calling and/or disqualified as she cuts corners. But by keeping her eyes on Jesus, she will find the strength to persevere and the integrity to do right when those on the sidelines tempt her to take shortcuts. “In Him alone do we see absolute dependence on God, implicit trust, what it is, what it costs, and what it results in. On Him therefore must the gaze be fixed if the runner is to endure, for in Him the reasonableness, the beauty, and the reward of a life of faith are seen.”11
Listen to what Spurgeon had to say concerning looking to the Lord:
Oh, there is, in contemplating Christ, a balm for every wound; in musing on the Father, there is a quietus for every grief; and in the influence of the Holy Ghost, there is a balsam for every sore. Would you lose your sorrow? Would you drown your cares? Then go, plunge yourself in the Godhead’s deepest sea; be lost in his immensity; and you shall come forth as from a couch of rest, refreshed and invigorated. I know nothing which can so comfort the soul; so calm the swelling billows of sorrow and grief; so speak peace to the winds of trial, as a devout musing upon the subject of the Godhead.12
Of course, this matter of being distracted was a very prevalent problem to these Hebrew believers. They were being tempted to look away from Christ and to look to the “shadows” of the tabernacle system. Many on the sidelines were calling to them to quit the race and to run back to a Christless temple. But our writer exhorts, “Look to Jesus!” Apart from Him, “they will either drop out through distraction or collapse with exhaustion.”13
The emphasis is not merely that Jesus is our moral example extraordinaire, which of course He is. Rather, the emphasis is that He is the source of our faith, and it is by and through Him that we will finish the race. It is therefore an exhortation to abide in Christ (see John 15:1–8). Richard Phillips writes, “Jesus is not merely an example, like some long-dead hero. Nor is He the object of our faith as a mere philosophical ideal. Rather, He is an active recipient of our faith, active in inspiring and empowering faith in us because He lives now.”14
We should observe here that the author recognises the prevenience of Jesus when it comes to anyone’s faith in Him, including the Old Testament saints previously mentioned. He was both the source and the object of their faith. Jesus is God; He always has been and always will be. The old covenant believers believed in Jesus because, as the sovereign Saviour, He empowered them to do so. And He will empower you as well. But how? As the author says, by looking to Him. In the words of David in Psalm 63:1, we must early (earnestly) seek Him. This is what “looking” looks like!
There are thousands of potential distractions and thousands of idols. As we look to Him, we find ourselves longing for Him as we grow in our love for Him. And this becomes fuel for our faith to keep making strides in this long distance race. The finish line becomes not merely a goal, but rather is seen as a Person. And the more clearly we see this personable finish line, the more motivated we are to persevere. Just as there is nothing more satisfyingly stimulating to a runner to enter a stadium and to see the well-marked finish line, so for the Christian to see Christ increasingly clearly becomes a source of great motivation to run, and to run well—regardless of the distance and regardless of the obstacles.
Soul striders must spend quality time gazing at Jesus if they will finish the race. This is actually a pleasurable aspect of our perseverance: reading the Word looking for Jesus; praying to and through Jesus; meditating on His person and work. Further, worshipping Him with other soul striders is essential if we will look on Him.
Our Soul Striders running club has a Whatsapp group, which is a rather busy group. But the communication helps to foster a sense of community, and this ultimately proves helpful to the larger group.
Let us never lose sight of the reality that Jesus is both the foundation and the finisher of our faith. And for this reason He must remain our focus. Don’t minimise His words that “without Me you can do nothing” (John 15:5). As Jay Adams notes, “He does not merely get you started on the Christian life, but is there throughout, enabling you to run until the race is complete.”15 So don’t get distracted. Keep your eyes on Him. Keep your head up and hold your gaze on Him. The longer you love Him, the longer you will run for and to Him.
Before leaving this section, let’s dwell for a moment on the reality that Jesus is the “finisher of our faith.”
This word “finisher” speaks of completing and of consummation. It is akin to the word “perfect” in 11:40. The point the writer is driving home is that Jesus is the culmination of all of the faith examples under the old covenant because, in Him, all shadows and types are fulfilled. The entirety of the tabernacle system, with all of its sacrificial ritual and typical festivals, is fulfilled in Jesus. In Christ alone we have salvation. So why look anywhere else? If you do, you will never finish the race; in fact, apart from Jesus Christ alone, you will not even enter the race. You may pretend that you are “in” but eventually—like Rosie Ruiz in the 1980 Boston Marathon—you will be exposed for the fraud that you are.
To change the metaphor, if you are not “kitted” by Jesus you will be thrown out of the race (see Matthew 22:1–14).
The Enjoyment of the Race
The second part of v. 2 highlights the enjoyment of the race. It speaks of Jesus, “who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.”
As we run the race of faith, keeping our eyes fixed squarely on Jesus our forerunner (6:20), He empowers us by His continual, loving, High Priestly intercession on our behalf. This keeps us in the race and provides hope for the next kilometre. But joy is also at the centre of our perseverance. And the example of Jesus enables us to be joyful, in spite of the aches and pains and sense of exhaustion that we sometimes experience as soul striders.
The phrase “who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross” introduces the element of joy into the race.
Running is not always a joyful experience. It can be downright painful. But what is enjoyable is the assurance that there will be an end to the pain along with the joy of achieving one’s goal. This seems to be the writer’s thought here.
The word “for” can be translated as “instead of,” and therefore some have suggested that the emphasis is upon Jesus making the decision to choose the cross instead of the joy of being fully clothed in glory as God. This, of course, is the teaching of Philippians 2:1–5. However, the most natural reading is that Jesus, knowing the joy that awaited Him beyond the cross, was able to stay focused on the cross. In other words, because of Jesus’ faith concerning the eventual reward, He ran the race, which for Him included enduring the disgrace of death on the cross.
Crucifixion was the most ignoble and cruellest, the most shameful, form of criminal punishment of the time. But Jesus endured it.
The writer uses the same terms “set before” with reference to Jesus’s eventual joy as he used to describe the Christian’s entrance into the race of faith. Again, He is the author and finisher of our faith. His approach to life is to be ours.
The writer makes the point that, not only was the cross foreordained by God (Acts 2:22–23), but so was the aftermath of the cross: Jesus having “sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.” In other words, Jesus persevered and counted as nothing the disgraceful experience of the cross (“despising the shame”) precisely because He was confident of the joy that awaited Him at the end of His race. Dods says, “This hope or confident expectation so animated Him that He endured the utmost of human suffering and shame.”11 As Morris writes, “Jesus thought so little of the pain and shame involved that he did not bother to avoid it. He endured it.”17
Though Jesus did not enjoy the experience of the cross, nevertheless He was assured that He would enjoy its fruit. And He did—and He does—and He will.
Soul strider, keep running with God’s promised joy set before you. One day, you will be like Jesus (Romans 8:28–30). And, because of Jesus, you will hear, “Well done” (Matthew 25:23) as you receive the crown of life (James 1:12).
Joy is the birthright of the Christian, but all too often we are like Esau and seemingly despise it. So often, joy seems elusive as we experience hardships along the race of faith. Sometimes even fellow soul striders can wound us and, if we are honest, we must confess that we are tempted to unhappiness due to the hurt. But it is precisely at such times that we need to look to Jesus, who bore His cross, so that we can take up our cross and follow Him to the finish line. His cross empowers us to embrace our cross. His gospel becomes the source of our joy. So preach it to yourself, looking to Jesus for grace to keep running the race. And when you do, then a strange thing happens: You begin to enjoy the race!
As Jones says, “Meditating on His dogged perseverance on earth and his present joy in glory will stiffen their resolve and give wings to their feet.”18
Exiting the Race
As we conclude our study, let’s reflect for a moment on the reality that one day God’s soul striders will finish their race. What they entered, by God’s grace, will be exited, by God’s grace. We will lay aside our spiritual running shoes and will forever be in the presence of our glorious Saviour, surrounded by a glorious earth, never to feel the fatigue and the pains of the race again. In other words, we will experience in full what the author and finisher of our faith secured for us so long ago.
You may be troubled by the thought that you in the end you will be disqualified. If you are, don’t worry: You won’t be. It is those who are not troubled who should be concerned. If Jesus Christ is your trusted hope, then you have every reason to be confident in spite of your entanglements along the way. The fact that Jesus is at the right hand of the Father is our surety that we will finish and that our finish will be recognised by the Judge of all who run the race. The Judge is on our side! He does not bend the rules but rather has appointed the one who makes sure that any broken rules are atoned for. Hallelujah, what a Saviour!
Someone challenged me a while ago to create something of a “bucket list” of things I would like to do before I die one day. One of the things that I had on my bucket list was to run the Boston Marathon. I qualified for that many years ago, but never ended up running. I decided that I would like to do it, and so I set about doing what I needed to do in order to qualify.
It came down to a race that I was running last year. I needed to finish in a certain time in order to qualify for Boston—and I did. However, when I crossed the finish line, an official informed me that I was disqualified because I was wearing a number from the previous year. I had been told by our captain that our team’s new numbers hadn’t arrived yet but that the previous year’s numbers would be accepted. But now I was being told by an official that I was disqualified.
I went to find our team captain, who told me that he would sort it out. He spoke to the official, and in the end my time was recorded and I officially qualified for Boston. In reality, I had been disqualified, but my captain’s intercession ensured that I qualified in the end.
Jesus is our great intercessor who ensures that we qualify for the race even though we do not deserve it. Thank God for such a great and gracious intercessor! With such a promise set before us, let us—each of us—by grace become soul striders.
- William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:408. ↩
- Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 250. ↩
- F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 346. ↩
- Marcus Dods, The Expositor’s Greek Testament, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988), 4:365. ↩
- Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 349. ↩
- Guthrie, Hebrews, 251. ↩
- Edgar Andrews, A Glorious High Throne: Hebrews Simply Explained (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2003), 406. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:409. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:411. ↩
- Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 226. ↩
- Dods, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 4:366. ↩
- Charles Haddon Spurgeon, The Immutability of God, http://goo.gl/JUy76, retrieved 15 February 2015. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 227–28. ↩
- Richard Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 535. ↩
- Jay E. Adams, Hebrews, James, I & II Peter, Jude: The Christian Counselor’s Commentary (Woodruff: Timeless Texts, 1996), 119. ↩
- Dods, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 4:366. ↩
- Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:134. ↩
- Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 138. ↩