Redemptive Living (Leviticus 25:1-55)

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God’s people are called to be holy, to be different—theologically, morally, spiritually (religiously), economically, etc. In a word, we are called to be different ethically. And one way in which our ethics are manifested is in how we treat others. We are called to be different relationally. We see this in Leviticus 25.

Leviticus 25 reveals the sabbatical laws with reference to the Land of Promise as well as the laws of Jubilee, the ultimate of the sabbatical laws. As we saw previously, the theocentric principle behind these laws is that God owns all the land and that has the right to govern its use (v. 23). The soteriological principle is that God redeems His people (vv. 38, 42, 55); and the Christocentric principle undergirding these laws is that the Lord Jesus Christ is the Jubilee (Luke 4:16-19). We learned that these lessons can be summed up by the overall theme of debt relief.

We applied this passage to our need for relief from the debt of our sins. We need Christ as our Jubilee. But there is another aspect that I want to emphasise today: Those who have experienced the grace of God in experiencing freedom from spiritual debt are responsible to minister debt relief to others.

One commentator says of this chapter: “The idea of Jubilee ‘is probably the most radical social and economic idea in all the Bible.’ Its effect was to rule out speculation and prevent economic exploitation. It enshrined in law the cessation of land abuse, the cancellation of debts, the restitution of land to its original owners, the repair of the family, and the termination of slavery.”1 In other words, it emphasises redemptive living.

Many commentators have noted that, properly speaking, this chapter could be thematically summarised by the commandment, “Love your neighbour as yourself” (Leviticus 19:38). This chapter emphasises the prohibition against oppressing neighbours and fellow Israelites, especially with reference to those who had fallen on hard times economically. Perhaps the temptation existed to scorn a family member who always seemed to be in need. But this chapter makes it clear that that was never to be the response of God’s people. Rather, an Israelite was to reach out to help his brother in need. Wenham is therefore correct when he writes, “‘Love your neighbor as yourself’ is the all-embracing moral principle that inspires the jubilee legislation.”2

As you read this chapter over and over, the theme of loving your neighbour as yourself is indeed prevalent. The motivation for this love is the experience of God’s love for us. Such love leads to the redemptive concern for those who are in debt. We see this throughout the chapter: vv. 14-17; vv. 35-37; vv. 39-40; etc.

God was concerned that those who were impoverished would not suffer further by being taken advantage of. The vulnerable were not to be marginalised or exploited. And what was to protect them was the gospel.

Specifically, those who had been redeemed by God were to apply the gospel to those around them. The redeemed were to be redemptive. The experience of the gospel (the good news of their own redemption) was to lead to the expression of the gospel in their relationships.

Though we live in a different era, our responsibility is no different. A fellow elder recently prayed some words in our elders’ prayer meeting that really struck me: “God You are still good, and Your laws are still good.” We who have experienced the grace of God through His gospel are to be relationally redemptive. The gospel affects how we view and how we treat others.

In this study, we will look once again at Leviticus 25, under the theme of “Redemptive Living.” We will consider this subject under three broad headings:

  1. The Responsibility for Redemptive Living
  2. The Requirements for Redemptive Living
  3. The Results of Redemptive Living

The Responsibility for Redemptive Living

As noted, the laws in Leviticus were all delivered at Sinai—perhaps on Mount Sinai. That seems to be the particular case in chapter 25, according to v. 1. This location is highlighted for the sake of emphasis. These sabbatical laws with reference to property and provision needed to be solemnised, for perhaps no other issue so tempts the believer than these material issues. God was reminding them of their responsibility for faithful stewardship of that which ultimately belongs to Him (v. 23).

The Definition of Redemptive Living

It would do us good at the outset to define our terminology.

The Need for Redemption

In this chapter, the word “redeem” or “redemption” occurs frequently—some nineteen times (vv. 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 48, 49, 51, 52, 54). The word means “to release by a payment,” and hence we find the related word “repay” in vv. 51-52.

The backdrop of the concept of redemption in Scripture is that of being freed from servitude, bondage, enslavement or debt. This is certainly the case here. It is for this reason that other words associated with redemption are used in this chapter—words such as, “restore” or “release”—some eight times (vv. 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 54). Note also the word “return,” which is found seven times (vv. 10, 13, 27, 28, 41).

If one was in debt, they could redeem themselves by accumulating sufficient capital, thereby enabling them to repurchase the land they had sold or even their forfeited freedom. However, in most cases, once one was in debt, they would not be able to reverse their condition without help from the outside. This is why the Lord made the provision of the kinsman redeemer as revealed in vv. 25, 47ff.

Currid says that the word “redemption” is “principally used to indicate the obligations of a near relative in a family; if a kinsman gets into difficulty or danger, the near relative is to redeem his relative from the situation.”3 The kinsman redeemer was a relative of the indebted who would pay the required price upon which the land and the individual was freed from debt.

Upon payment of the fair market price the indebted individual was released to return to his land, and in many cases to his family, from which he had been separated.

With this definition in mind let’s define “redemptive living.” We might define this term as living conscious of those around us who are in need (spiritually, emotionally, economically). It is to live committed to practically doing what we can to alleviate that need, to live with a willingness to pay the price necessary to lift the burdens of others, to meet their needs.

It is clear from this chapter that the Lord expected His people to accept their responsibility to think and to live redemptively. They were to be aware of the needs of their brethren and, where possible, to relieve them. They were to be corporately concerned for the release of their fellow Israelites from servitude. That is what it means to live redemptively.

My Servants

But the most essential issue behind this matter of living redemptively is found in vv. 42 & 55. According to these verses, redemption was ultimately about all of God’s redeemed people being freed to serve Him. The nation was therefore instructed to aid their brothers and sisters practically in order that they might be freed to more freely and fully serve the Lord.

God wanted His people freed from debt so that they could focus more on serving Him. And for this reason, in this chapter “Moses now deals with the prevention of the enslavement of the citizens of God’s kingdom in the land that Israel is looking forward to occupy.”4

This is precisely the responsibility of the new covenant believer. Having ourselves been the recipients of God’s redemptive mercies in order to serve Him, we are called to come alongside our brothers and sisters and to so minister to them that they will be able to more freely, fully and more focally serve the Saviour. We are called to help our brothers and sisters in Christ to be all that they can be for Him.

The Duties of Redemptive Living

With this definition in mind let’s flesh this out some more, especially as we seek to understand the foundation of these Jubilee and redemptive laws.

The Israelites were responsible to live out the implications of the Day of Atonement (vv. 8-10). The announcement of the Jubilee occurred on the Day of Atonement. This would symbolise for the people that they were saved by grace and that all subsequent “salvations” were also by grace. Further, it would serve to remind the people that, since they had been the recipients of grace, they were to extend grace to others. It was for this reason that, over and again, the chapter exhorts the people that they were not to oppress those who were in debt, but were rather to be gracious and kind to them.

The timing of the Jubilee served to teach the children of Israel that they were always and forever dependent upon the grace of God. With such a paradigm, it was expected that they would be gracious towards others.

“The Day of Atonement is a day of restoration between God and his people, and it serves as an apt beginning for restorative practices in the entire society.”5 And so, “on this high holy day, when reconciliation with God was to become a national petition, the Israelites were likewise reminded to be properly restored to their brothers.”6 That is, they had received mercy and so were to display mercy to others. They had experienced debt relief and so were to help others to experience relief from debt as well. Again, Currid helpfully observes, “Laws of redemption and mercy are established for the Hebrews because they are a people who are redeemed and have received mercy.”7

If we will consistently live redemptively, we must constantly keep the atonement before us. We must continually and consistently live in the knowledge of what God has done for us in Christ Jesus our Lord. And as we appreciate our redemption, we will be more prone to be relationally redemptive towards others.

We, like those under the old covenant, are responsible to think and to act redemptively (see Philippians 2:1-8; Ephesians 5:2, 25; Romans 15:7; Colossians 3:13).

I recently saw an advertisement on TV for a teeth whitening procedure, complete with several testimonials from beneficiaries of the procedure. One individual claimed that whitened teeth had changed his life. I have had less than sparkling white teeth most of my life, and until I saw the advert I didn’t realise how much my life needed to be changed!

I share this simply to illustrate the point that some people feel defined by one particular thing in their life. Spiritually, many feel that the only thing that characterises them is their failure. Our redemptive response will go a long way towards removing their self-consciousness of their sin, which will really change their life (see Galatians 6:1-2, 10).

What a difference such redemptive thinking would make in our homes, church and, ultimately, society. Rather than criticising, we would seek to constructively help (vv. 35-36). Rather than always criticising, husbands would love their wives. Rather than dwelling on failures, wives would lovingly submit to their husbands. Parents would take more seriously their responsibility to raise their children in the discipline and instruction of the Lord (Ephesians 6:4; Colossians 3:21). Church members would lovingly admonish one another (Galatians 6:1-2). Christians would reach out to the vulnerable in society.

Our church recently played host to a funeral for the father of a young pastor in another church in our city. I never met the deceased, but as I listened to the countless words of testimony from those whose lives he had touched, I wished that I had met him. One particular man spoke of how he had come to South Africa from Mozambique, and had met Walter, who had taken him under his wing, teaching him how to be a husband and a father—and even passing some mechanical trade knowledge to him. That is what it means to live redemptively.

Rather than oppressing others, we should seek to lift their burdens with the blessings that God has provided for us.

The Requirements for Redemptive Living

Having noted our responsibility, and I trust having been stimulated to action, let us now practically look at what is necessary for us to live redemptively.

Revelation

As noted, our text tells us that “the LORD spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying, ‘Speak to the children of Israel’” (vv. 1-2). This is bracketed in 26:46 with these words: “These are the statutes and judgements and laws which the LORD made between Himself and the children of Israel on Mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.” The point is that these words were received by divine revelation.

This is basic but essential to grasp. We learn here that the Word empowers redemptive living because the Word points us to the gospel.

These laws were revealed by God, who had revealed Himself to the nation. And His revelation to the nation occurred in the context of redemption.

Exodus is the story of God’s redemption of His people (see Exodus 1—15). You will remember that, when instructed to inform the Israelites that God would deliver (redeem) them from Egypt, Moses asked the Lord, “Indeed, when I come to the children of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they say to me, ‘What is His name?’ what shall I say to them?” The Lord replied, “I AM WHO I AM.”

Moses knew that revelation of and from God was essential if the people would pay heed to the message and promise of redemption. So it is with you and me. We need the experience of God’s redemption being revealed, and then we must experience it. His Word is the means of that (see 1 Corinthians 2:7-10). It is the means of our initial salvation (James 1:18) and the means of our ongoing salvation (Ephesians 5:25-26; Colossians 3:16; John 17:17).

In other words, if we will live redemptively, we must have the experience of God revealing His redemption to us—over and over. Redemptive living is nourished, matured and nurtured by His Word.

During a recent visit to family in the United States, I was staying at my father-in-law’s house. Every morning when I walked out of the house onto the patio I would find him sitting there reading his Bible. He has been saved for decades, and has spent time daily in God’s Word. What’s more, as a pastor who has preached thousands of sermons, he has never failed to say to me, “Doug, let me tell you what I learned in the Bible this morning.” And he is a man who exemplifies redemptive living.

If we will live redemptively, we need to spend time privately in God’s Word. We also need to be committed to the corporate instruction of God’s Word and corporate worship grounded in His Word.

Remembrance

At least three times in this chapter (vv. 38, 42, 55), the Lord reminds the people that He had delivered them from Egypt. If they would live redemptively, it was important for them to frequently remember what God had done for them. We need the same. We need to continually remember God’s grace in redeeming us, and this will empower us to live redemptively towards others.

The motivation for redemptive living is clearly revealed in these three verses. God expected His people to remember from where they had been brought. He expected them to remember that they had been delivered from harsh bondage (see vv. 43, 46; cf. Exodus 1:13). He expected them to remember that, but for the grace of God, they would have remained in that condition. The practical result of such remembrance would be a corresponding commitment to graciously relieve others of their burdens. It would produce compassionate identification with those in need of debt relief.

There is something very ugly, disconcerting and even repulsive about an “unforgiving Christian.” In fact, I would question whether such a category exists. An unforgiving person is, by definition, a bitter person, and I don’t see much, if any, allowance for such a category of Christian in the Bible.

One who will not forgive is one who cannot forgive, and one who cannot forgive is one who has not been forgiven. And those who are not forgiven face a God who will not forgive them (cf. Matthew 6:14-15; 18:34-35).

Philip Ryken writes of some interesting neurological studies that have been performed by doctors in the brains of those who will not forgive.

Doctors Daniel Amen, Marian Diamond, and Caroline Leaf have described what vengeful feelings do to the human brain. Based on biochemical research, these neuroscientists have documented the toxic chemical flood that our bodies release into our brains whenever we think malicious thoughts. Their microphotographs show how the chemicals that are released burn tunnels into the branches of our nerve cells.

Dr. Leaf calls these burned-out neurons “emotional black holes.” They are empty spaces in the brain produced by the angry resentments of a bitter soul. Yet, amazingly, it is possible for the brain to grow nerve fibers that fill in these black holes. New memories can replace the old. And one of the virtues Dr. Leaf identifies as bringing the most healing is forgiveness.8

Let me ask you, do you have any unnecessary holes in your head?

This would be a good place to address the issue of how we are to respond to those who will not forgive you or someone else.

That is a painful experience. When you have humbled yourself (or, better yet, have been humbled by God) to acknowledge your sin and you confess it to one you have wronged, you are hopeful (and even expectant, if dealing with another believer) that you will be forgiven. You are hopeful for “release” from your burden and you are hopeful for the one whom you offended to be “released” from the burden you have caused them. But when that person refuses to forgive you, it is like being spat upon. It is a painful form of rejection. Perhaps it is the most painful kind of rejection, because it leaves you feeling somewhat hopeless. After all, what more can you do? You have cast yourself upon their mercy and they have mocked your pleading. How do you deal with that?

As I mentioned in a recent study, this Jubilee law teaches us that if God says we are free then we are free indeed. If we have truly repented and sought forgiveness then God has forgiven us—even if others do not. We need not live in bondage. But the danger here is that we are tempted to another sin: bitterness. The way to fight that is to pray for the unforgiving individual—not for judgement, but for grace.

I found myself recently asking the Lord to give grace to someone that I know who is unforgiving. That is a biblical and a healthy way to pray for the unforgiving. In essence, that is what Jesus was doing when He asked His Father, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do” (Luke 23:34).

Please realise that, even if the individual will not be redemptive towards you, you are required by Christ to continue to be redemptive toward them. We are required to turn the other cheek. So, be like God your Father (Matthew 5:48) and continue to rain down goodness on those who have chosen to be your enemy. Perhaps God’s goodness, as ministered through you, will be a means of leading them to repentance. The possibilities are worth the risk. Certainly your being at peace with God is worth the rejection of your enemies!

Before moving on, let me exhort us all to remember that God has released us from the debt of our sin. Let us be redemptive towards others in their sin. Release the repentant from their guilt by an openness to forgive. Release the one whom you have offended from the burden of pain and from the burden of facing the temptation to bitterness by seeking forgiveness from them.

Reverence

Verse 43 speaks of the need for reverence: “You . . . shall fear your God.” In a very real sense, all that I have said thus far is predicated upon this issue: the fear of the Lord. To the degree that we properly fear the Lord we will live redemptively.

When we go to the Old Testament, where the term “the fear of the Lord” is very common, we come upon some very puzzling usages. Often the fear of the Lord is linked with great joy. Proverbs 28:14 tells us that “Happy is the one who feareth always.” How can someone who is constantly in fear be filled with happiness? Perhaps most surprising is Psalm 130:4, where the Psalmist says, “Forgiveness comes from you—therefore you are feared.” Forgiveness and grace increase the fear of the Lord. Other passages tell us that we can be instructed and grow in the fear of the Lord (2 Chronicles 26:5; Psalm 34:11), that it is characterized by praise, wonder, and delight (Psalm 40:3; Isaiah 11:3). How can that be? One commentator on Psalm 130 puts it like this: “Servile fear [being scared] would have been diminished, not increased, by forgiveness. . . . The true sense of the ‘fear of the Lord’ in the Old Testament [then] . . . implies relationship.”

Obviously, to be in the fear of the Lord is not to be scared of the Lord, even though the Hebrew word has overtones of respect and awe. “Fear” in the Bible means to be overwhelmed, to be controlled by something. To fear the Lord is to be overwhelmed with wonder before the greatness of God and his love. It means that, because of his bright holiness and magnificent love, you find him “fearfully beautiful.” That is why the more we experience God’s grace and forgiveness, the more we experience a trembling awe and wonder before the greatness of all that he is and has done for us. Fearing him means bowing before him out of amazement at his glory and beauty. Paul speaks of the love of Christ ‘constraining’ us (2 Corinthians 5:14). . . . Are you largely driven by anger against someone or some people who have wronged you? Paul says that if any of these things is a greater controlling influence on you than the reality of God’s love for you, you will not be in a position to serve others unselfishly. Only out of the fear of the Lord Jesus will we be liberated to serve one another.9

If we truly fear the Lord, we will be wise (Job 28:28), which means that we will see things differently than those of the world. We will therefore seek to lift the burdens of the oppressed. We will seek to imitate our God and therefore love as His dear children (Ephesians 5:1-2). We will wisely obey Him, even when we would rather not be forgiving or giving.

Sabbath Significance

Before moving on, let highlight something of great significance in this passage that relates to reverence and redemptive living. It is found in the opening seven verses.

The emphasis on the Sabbath is replete in the law of God (and in the Gospels as well). The sabbatical year of rest for the land (vv. 4, 6) is intimately connected with righteousness, social justice and therefore with redemptive living. “These enactments demonstrate that an equitable society has to be based upon moral and spiritual principles. Indeed, the spirituality of the jubilee is grounded in the concept of the sabbath and the sabbatical year, of which it is the logical expansion.”10

As we have seen, obedience to these laws in Leviticus 25 would require faith on the part of the children of Israel. It would require trust. It would require the fear of the Lord. It would require reverence. But such practical reverence would yield the fruit of witnessing God’s miraculous provision (vv. 18-22). And such experiential mercies would no doubt encourage them to be kind and gracious towards others. For, ultimately, grace shown towards others is an act of faith. When you graciously provide for others then you are trusting God to meet your own need. When you graciously and redemptively forgive others or reach out to help others you do not know the outcome. Yet you trust the Lord to care for you in your time of redemptive vulnerability.

Let me make a very important sabbatical observation: Though we are not called to observe the sabbatical year, we are commanded to observe a weekly Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11). And when we do so by faith we find ourselves in a position to be spiritually nourished and enriched. As we use the Sabbath to do the Lord’s pleasure (which is to delight ourselves in Him) we come away strengthened in our appreciation of God’s redemption. The fallout is that we are equipped to be redemptive towards others. We will look at this more in our study of Leviticus 26, but we must grasp that we will never be the salt and light that we are called to be until we, the church at large, return to joyful submission to all of the Ten Commandments—including the horribly neglected Fourth Commandment. Reverence and redemptive living include reverencing the Lord’s Day.

The Results of Redemptive Living

As we bring this study to a close, let me highlight some results that we can expect that arise from redemptive living. Though we have already touched on these, let me restate some of them.

Relief

The word “release” could also be used here (vv. 28, 30, 31, 33, 50, 54). This word, of course, means “to let go” and is used with reference to land, dwellings (houses), and individuals (along with their family members). When one is redeemed, they are set free.

Without rehashing all that has been said, it is imperative that we understand that to live redemptively is to live in such a way that we bring relief to others. We are to so live that we decrease the burdens of others rather than increasing them (see Galatians 6:1-ff).

Are you a breath of fresh air or are you a heavy stench? Does your involvement with others lead to a sense of jubilee (as with Timothy toward Paul, see Philippians 2:19-24) or does it lead to a dirge? Ask this question in all your relationships: friendships, body life, family, marriage, the workplace. Ask the same question in dealing with broken people and even in helping the destitute (see vv. 35-37).

Restoration

Verses 25-28 details the process by which land sold could be restored to the original owner. It is this matter of restoration on which I wish to focus briefly.

The NKJV speaks in these verses of land being restored through “redemption.” That is, upon meeting the terms of redemption, the land was to be restored to its former owner. Redemption would restore the situation to the norm. Whatever had led to the separation between the individual and his land was now settled and he could be restored to his land and, in some cases, to loved ones.

Redemptive living has the goal of restoring things to the way God meant them to be. In fact, this is the goal of the gospel (see John 3:16-17; Acts 3:21). The disciples understood that the work of Christ had something to do with restoration, for this was one of their questions to Him after His resurrection (Acts 1:6).

The Lord Jesus behaved redemptively towards Zacchaeus, and the result was that a sinner-turned-saint restored to his victims what he had previously stolen from them (Luke 19:8). Paul wrote of the expectation that believers will redemptively restore brothers and sisters in Christ who fall into sin. Clearly, restoration to the norm (to the way God intends things to be) is both the goal and the result of redemptive living.

We should strive to be redemptive in all spheres of life—to our spouse, to our children, to our parents, to our siblings, in society in general—with the goal of restoration to God’s norm. The Bible speaks of a time when the lion will lie down with the lamb in a remarkable return to the way things were in Eden. It speaks of a time when swords will be beaten into ploughshares because no more friction will exist between people. It speaks of a time when law and order will be restored to society. These are glorious gospel promises.

One day all things will be restored to God’s norm. We live in the already-not-yet. “The eternal jubilee will make all things new, especially a completely new social order of freedom and bliss (Rev. 21:23—22:5). What is the old social order that is removed? The evils remedied by the Jubilee Year were debt, slavery, destitution, and exhausting toil.”11 I recently preached a funeral for a young man, and in the days leading up to the funeral was privileged to have his Bible. As I looked through the various notes scrawled in the margins, I came to Revelation 21:1-5, which speaks of the time when there will be no more tears or sorrow, and found these words scribbled in the margin: “There will come a time.” For him, that time has come; for us, it will one day come.

Reconciliation

Finally, redemptive living aims for reconciliation. And thank God that often it achieves this.

Verses vv. 10, 13, 28, 41 speak of property (land) being returned, as well as a redeemed individual returning to his land and family. Hence, it speaks not only of release and of restoration but also of reconciliation. Separation was redemptively mended. A man was been reunited and reconciled with his family.

This, of course, is ultimately the message of the good news. Paul spoke of this redemptive reconciliation in 2 Corinthians 5:17-21. He rejoiced that all those in Christ are new creations. He understood that all who have been redeemed by God in Christ have been reconciled to God. The once threatened eternal separation had been mended and the believing sinner and the holy and saving God were forever reconciled.

The glory of the gospel is that God is reconciled to man and therefore believing man is reconciled to believing man. This seems precisely to be Paul’s point in 2 Corinthians 5. Paul no longer regarded anyone according to the flesh, meaning that his ethnocentrism had died when he died in Christ. He was a man who longed to see redemptive living produce unity in the church, which one day will be displayed in the world. This should be our passion as well.

God calls His children to redemptively reconcile with one another. He calls us to display a unity and a harmony that is unattainable apart from the redeeming work of Christ—a supernatural unity in the midst of demographic diversity.

When I was growing up in the United States, I enjoyed watching the All Star Baseball game. There are two baseball leagues in the US: the National League and the American League. Fans vote for and therefore select two teams—one representative of each league—who play against each other in a midsummer game. I haven’t watched for a long time, but when I was growing up, each player wore his regular team’s uniform, even while representing a particular league. The result was players wearing different colours on the same team, all working together.

There is a sense in which that illustrates life in the church of Jesus Christ. Being reconciled together in and for Christ requires that we relate redemptively with one another despite our differences. Let me therefore ask you, who do you need to forgive? Whose forgiveness do you need to seek? Whom do you need to restore? Do you need to be restored?

Let me make an appeal: If we, the church of Jesus Christ, will not be redemptive in our relationships, if we will not display the relief from sin and the restoration to saneness, and if we will not be reconciled, how will we ever convince the world that our message is true?

It is for this reason that Paul pleaded with the Corinthians to be reconciled to God. The implication is that such a redemptive experience will usher in the reality of reconciliation in the body of Christ. In the words of the Lord Jesus Christ, “By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another” (John 13:35). By God’s redemptive and reconciling grace, let us pursue redemptive living.

Show 11 footnotes

  1. Derek Tidball, The Message of Leviticus: Free to Be Holy (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 2005), 299-300.
  2. Gordon J. Wenham, The Book of Leviticus: The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979), 323.
  3. John D. Currid, Study Commentary on Leviticus (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2004), 332.
  4. Robert I. Vasholz, 325.
  5. Currid, Study Commentary on Leviticus, 325-26.
  6. Mark F. Rooker, Leviticus: The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 303.
  7. Currid, Study Commentary on Leviticus, 337.
  8. Philip Graham Ryken, Loving the Way Jesus Loves (Wheaton: Crossway Books, 2012), 161-62.
  9. Timothy J. Keller, “The Fear of the Lord,” http://goo.gl/mMdFv, retrieved 14 July 2013.
  10. R. K. Harrison, Leviticus: Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1980), 230.
  11. Allen P. Ross, Holiness to the Lord: A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002), 463.