Perhaps nothing is more offensive to our contemporaries than the proposition that sinners can only be forgiven by the sacrificial death of another. I know a man, who once professed faith, who never took Communion because the thought of bloodied, sacrificed animals turned him off. John Shelby Spong claims, “I would choose to loathe rather than to worship a deity who required the sacrifice of his son.”1 Some critics of Christianity accuse God of cosmic child abuse because of the cross.
Those who reject the biblical teaching concerning the blood of Christ as our only hope of salvation are saying no to God. The Bible identifies them as fools (Psalm 14:1). It is no mark of genius, sophistication or wisdom to reject God’s prescription for your biggest problem (sin).
Yes, God has prescribed the shedding of blood for the remission of sins and, without this, there is no forgiveness (v. 28).
At a certain level, I can appreciate the struggles with this issue of someone outside of Christianity. Some simply have not thought through the implications of the biblical teaching that we need a substitutionary, blood-shedding sacrifice if we will be saved. We should be patient with such people and seek to helpfully instruct them in this gospel truth.
but when it comes to those who profess to be Christians, and yet who cast aspersion on the biblical teaching that nothing but the blood of Christ will save us from our sins, this is a different matter altogether. If they want to deny the need for a blood-shedding sacrifice then let them do so, but they should at least be honest enough to admit that this is what the Bible teaches. If you don’t want to believe this, then go ahead. But don’t call your belief system “Christianity.” What you are practicing may be a religion, but it is not Christianity.
In the proper meaning of the phrase, Christianity is a bloody religion. It has always been dripping with blood.
Consider the roots of our faith. The Old Testament prescribed altars upon which blood was shed and even basins in which blood was collected. As our text reminds us, blood was often “sprinkled” (literally, “thrown”) onto the items associated with the tabernacle, and sometimes it was even “sprinkled” on people. Over the centuries, countless animals were sacrificed in such a way that millions of litres of blood flowed. When you think about it, this is gross. This, in fact, may well turn turn your stomach. And it is meant to. Sin is sickening. Sin is disgusting. Sin is gross. And it should be gross to us.
The purpose of the blood-shedding sacrifices under the old covenant was to drive home the seriousness of sin. It was meant to drive into the heart and soul of God’s people that sin is a deathly serious issue. Though God mercifully prescribed incense to accompany some sacrifices, even these air-sanitisers could not completely cover the stench of death. This is precisely how we should view sin: It should stink. Through sin, the stench of death passed upon all men (Romans 5:12).
Too many people try to cover this stench with superficial, moralistic air fresheners when what is needed is a thorough deep-cleansing. And only the blood of Jesus Christ, blood that He shed at His death, is sufficient to wash away all of sins. Yes, nothing but the blood of Jesus can for sin atone. Thank God for the fountain filled with blood drawn from Emmanuel’s veins.2
Let me ask, are you washed in the blood of the Lamb? This is the most important question for everyone whose conscience cries out, “What can wash away my sins?” The only accurate answer is, “Nothing but the blood of Jesus.”3 This is precisely the author’s point in this final section of Hebrews 9.
The term “blood” is found 21 times in the book of Hebrews. Except for its appearance in 2:14, it always refers to bloodshed in a redemptive way (and even in 2:14 there is an ultimate connection). The word is found twelve times in chapter 9, with the majority of these in the passage before us. This theme of the blood of Christ is the big idea in our passage.
We saw previously that the matter of having a cleansed conscience is essential if we will enter the presence of God. We saw that, because Christ has shed His precious blood, our consciences are cleansed and therefore we can enter beyond the veil.
In our study today, we will consider the remaining fourteen verses of Hebrews 9 with a view to being absolutely convinced that we can be saved from our sins by nothing but the blood of Jesus. The gospel is good news dripping in blood. Do you have a problem with that? Then get over it!
We will study the blood in these verses under four headings.
Nothing but the Blood is Reasonable
“And for this reason He is the Mediator of the new covenant, by means of death.” (v. 15a).
“For this reason” (“because of” or “therefore”) makes the connection between vv. 1–14 and this passage. It is because of the spotless offering of the blood of Christ in His sacrificial death that He is the “Mediator” or administrator of the new covenant.
The author is saying that it is quite reasonable that Jesus Christ is the Mediator in view of the price that He paid: His blood; that is, His blood-shedding death. Apart from this, there would be no new covenant. Jesus, in fact, made this very clear on the night on which He was betrayed (Matthew 26:28). His announcement of the new covenant was grounded in the truth that
a covenant is never secured until the ratifier has bound himself to his oath by means of a representative death…. Christ’s death was the means of providing the blood of the new covenant. His sacrificial death ratified or “made legally valid” the new covenant promised in Jer 31:31–34.4
It is for this reason that He is the Mediator of the new covenant.
Apart from this unique (yes, precious) blood, the animal sacrifices would still be required. The writer is simply highlighting that it is perfectly reasonable that the blood of Jesus brings in the new covenant. In fact, if it were not for the blood of Christ there would be no reason for a change in the covenant. The huge discontinuity between the blood of the Lamb and the blood of all other lambs means that there is now an infinite discontinuity between the two covenants. No wonder the author has gone to such great lengths to prove that the new covenant is so much better than the former covenant.
There is Power in the Blood
It is completely reasonable that the gospel is drenched in blood. It stands to reason—a reason informed by Scripture—that the blood of Jesus Christ is required for the new covenant to be operative. Without the shedding of Jesus’ blood at His death, the gospel would have no power. In fact, without the blood of Christ, the gospel would actually be unreasonable. There would be no basis, no reason, to proclaim good news, for there would be none! Apart from the blood of Jesus we would be limited to a covenant that could not purge/cleanse our conscience. And an unreasonable covenant is a useless one. Thank God for the blood of His Son (1 John 1:7–8). When it comes to dealing decisively with our sin problem, nothing but the blood is reasonable.
Of course, this was a huge stumblingblock for the Jews. The idea of a crucified Messiah was unthinkable—in spite of the fact that the old covenant clearly pointed to this! But once a Jewish person understood who Jesus of Nazareth truly was, and once they understood why Messiah had to die, they were able to be saved by nothing but the blood of Jesus (see Acts 2:22–41).
The same is true in our day, not only of Jews, but of all peoples. Though there is an initial offence of the cross, nevertheless if we will be saved then we must come to see that the shedding of the blood of Christ is completely reasonable. Any other approach to being reconciled to God is impossible.
Nothing but the Blood is Redemptive
Further, not only is nothing but the blood reasonable it is equally (and consequently) true that nothing but the blood is redemptive. It is sufficient “for the redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant, that those who are called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance” (v. 15b).
Nothing but the blood of Jesus can release us from our sins. By the sacrificial work of Jesus “sin is vanquished. Jesus came to rob sin of its tyranny and its suffocating stranglehold on man.”5 Nothing but the blood of Christ can release us from our slavery to sin. (See Ephesians 2:1–3 for a clear description of the slavery in which unredeemed sinners find themselves.)
The Ransom Paid
The word “redemption” comes primarily from the realm of the slave market. One was said to be “redeemed” when another paid a ransom price to secure the person’s release. When the ransom price was met, the individual was released into the care of another. This is precisely what Jesus Christ did when He paid the release price by blood—by His own blood.
When we properly appreciate the horror of being enslaved to sin then we will sing with gusto, “Jesus paid it all, all to Him I owe.”6 We will then understand that “sin had left a crimson stain” but that “He washed it white as snow.” How? By nothing but His blood.
I recently read the book 12 Years a Slave. Solomon Northup was a black man born free in New York. Kidnapped in Washington, D.C., he was sold into slavery, despite his protests that he was born free. Throughout his time as a slave, he remained hopeful that, even if he never attained freedom in this life, eternal liberty awaited him in glory.
I could hardly sleep when I had finished reading the memoir. But how much worse is slavery to sin! Northup looked forward to glory. His slavery was horrific, but at least it was temporary. But apart from Christ, our slavery is eternal. In fact, it will become eternally worse.
God is the one who set the price. This price is nothing but the blood. And the amazing thing is that God Himself paid it. That is gospel. “And can it be that I should gain an interest in my Saviour’s blood?” Yes indeed! “Amazing love! How can it be that you my God, should die for me?”7
The Release Procured
The glorious gospel truth, secured by the new covenant, is that “our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves to sin” (Romans 6:6). This is why we say, “God be thanked that though [we] were slaves to sin, yet [we] obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which [we heard]” (Romans 6:17).
Nothing but the blood of Jesus, nothing but His spotless offering of Himself to die for us, could secure such a deliverance. Apart from the blood of Christ we would still be enslaved to our sins with no hope. Our souls would be at the beck and call of every sinful desire and to the evil one. Yet as Charles Wesley so graphically described our redemption,
Long my imprisoned spirit lay
Fast bound in sin and nature’s night:
Then shown your glorious gospel ray;
I woke! The dungeon flamed with light!
My chains fell off; my heart was new,
I rose, went forth and followed You!8
A Retroactive Pardon
A frequently asked question is, how were Old Testament saints saved? The biblical answer is that they were saved through the person and work of Jesus Christ. This has been clearly revealed in this epistle.
The Old Testament symbols pointed to the antitype in Jesus Christ. Those whose consciences had been convicted by the Holy Spirit (v. 8) saw their need for the Saviour. The Spirit of God would then enable them, like Abraham, to see Christ and be glad (John 8:56).
You might ask, since Jesus had not yet come to earth, how this could be? How could they be forgiven in Christ if He had not yet come? The writer here speaks of “the redemption of transgressions under the first covenant.” That is, the redemptive work of Christ, the shed blood of Jesus Christ, worked retroactively. Paul said the same thing in Romans 3:21–26.
Without going into great detail, God temporarily covered the sins of believing old covenant people until the time in space-time history when He would completely wipe them away by nothing but the blood of Jesus.
The Riches Possessed
Because of this redemption, all whom God has effectually “called” are privileged not only to sing of deliverance from “sin and nature’s night,” but positively we can exalt that “no condemnation now I dread! Jesus, and all in Him, is mine!” This is precisely what our author tells us in the rest of the verse when he writes “that those who are called may receive the promise of eternal inheritance.”
Those who were saved under the old covenant looked forward to the time when God would fulfil His ultimate promises of inheritance.
Of course, fundamentally the “promise of the eternal inheritance” is the salvation that was promised in the Old Testament (Galatians 3:26–29). “‘Eternal’ points to the fact that the believer’s possession is no transitory affair. The salvation Christ won is forever.”9 This inheritance is available by nothing but the blood of Jesus.
Nothing but the Blood will Remit
In vv. 16–22 we learn that nothing but the blood of Jesus will remit our sins.
For where there is a testament, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is in force after men are dead, since it has no power at all while the testator lives. Therefore not even the first covenant was dedicated without blood. For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats, with water, scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, saying, “This is the blood of the covenant which God has commanded you.” Then likewise he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry. And according to the law almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission.
The big idea in this passage is found in the word “remission” in v. 22. This term means “to pardon,” “to forgive” and it also includes the idea of “to release.” The writer here argues that the only way that one can truly be pardoned from sin, the only way that one can really be forgiven and released from sin’s penalty, is by a blood-shedding death. “Under the old covenant nothing was considered as purified unless it had upon it the mark of the shed blood.”10 And so the writer’s point is that one can receive remission of sins by nothing but the blood of Jesus.
Having spoken of an “inheritance” (v. 15), the theme is immediately introduced concerning the primary basis on which one may receive an inheritance: by the death of the one who has willed your inheritance.
Covenant or Will?
There is much debate about the translation of the word for “covenant” or “testament.” It seems as if the writer is now referring to a last will and testament, which introduces an idea a bit different than that of a covenant.
Some argue that it is not true that a covenant always requires the death of the one making it (v. 17). They are correct. Yet it is also true that a covenant is a matter of life and death. For this reason, a sacrifice always attended the sealing of one, at least in the biblical record.
The same word in the Greek can be used to speak either of a covenant or a last will and testament. I believe that the author is using this term to emphasise these double meanings. As R. Kent Hughes points out, in the first instance (vv. 16–17) the word is used in a legal sense whereas in vv. 15, 18–20 the word is used in a religious sense.11 And both are associated with death; both are associated with nothing but the blood.
On the night on which Jesus was betrayed He prayed for His disciples. John 17 records what He prayed. And He clearly prayed about their inheritance. He prayed for eternal life (v. 2) and for union and communion (vv. 11, 21, 23). He prayed for their joy (v. 13), sanctification (v. 17) and glory (vv. 22, 24). He prayed for their love (v. 26).
In each instance, He prayed for something that He had given to them—an inheritance. This prayer, in other words, reveals His last will and testament. This was “the legacy he bequeathed through his death by the shedding of his own blood.”12
Jesus was asking the Father for several things on behalf of His disciples. But it is also clear that none of these requests could be granted until Jesus died. The new covenant, which Jesus had announced just hours before (Matthew 26:28), could not come into effect until Jesus shed His blood in death. There would be no remission of sins and therefore no inheritance. The two are inseparable. There had to be the death of the Testator. In other words, there could be an inheritance by nothing but the blood of Jesus.
The use of the word “therefore” by our author is brilliant. The writer makes the connection between these two ideas behind the Greek word diatheke.
The writer reminds us that the old covenant itself only “came into force” upon its first being “sprinkled” with blood (vv. 18–21). The covenant was initiated with blood. Both the “book” and the “people” were covered with blood to enact the covenantal relationship (Exodus 24:1–8).
This scene is very instructive.
When God entered into covenant with the people, they made a covenantal commitment to obey Him. This commitment was then sealed in blood. The people were metaphorically baptised in blood. This was a serious undertaking. It was a matter of life and death. The term of covenant-keeping was death.
God was instructing them that a substitutionary sacrifice was required for violations of His covenant.
As subsequent history reveals, the Israelites broke the covenant, and death and destruction attended their way. The subsequent blood-shedding sacrifices covered their covenantal violations, but a better covenant with a better sacrifice was required: not the blood of bulls and goats, but the blood of God’s own Son. Nothing but His blood could remove the curse and condemnation of covenant-breaking.
“In the Old Testament the Covenant-Maker intimates that he himself would take the place of covenant-breakers so that the blessings of the covenant would become their inheritance.”13 And so, as Lane highlights, this was anticipatory of the sacrificial death of Jesus: “In his death Jesus identified himself with the transgressors and took upon himself the curse sanctions of the covenant that were invoked whenever the stipulations of the covenant were ignored.”14
New Covenant Commitment
Under the new covenant, we are equally duty-bound to keep covenant with God. But the new covenant assures us that, in Christ, our violations are forgiven. Such an understanding moves us to gratitude, which further motivates us to obedience.
Those who profess Christ and who are covered in water are covenanting to obey their Lord. When they fail they will find remission in the one who also was covered with water—not only physical water, but the spiritual water of the wrath of God.
But let’s be clear: Many are covered with water who are still under wrath. And the evidence is that they do not walk with Him after they leave the water. They lie in the water and they lie in their walk. Be careful: The wages of sin, even baptised sin, is death. If this is you, then you need to repent and believe the gospel. Your hope does not lie in the water but in nothing but the blood of Jesus.
It is important for us to note a small proviso here in v. 22: “according to the law, almost all things are things are purified by blood.” Under Levitical law there were some sacrifices that God would accept for sin offerings that did not involve blood. Most notably perhaps is that found in Leviticus 5:1–11. The law prescribed the blood of a lamb but if one could not afford a lamb then they could bring turtledoves. But if they had not sufficient means for this then they could bring a meal offering. Since blood was symbolic of the true (the blood of Christ), God made provision for another symbol to stand for the original symbol. The point of this was that God is merciful and seeks to reconcile regardless of one’s socioeconomic position. God loves to save sinners—all kinds of sinners. Nevertheless, even these non-life-sacrificing offerings were grounded in the ultimate sacrifice, the Lamb slain from before the foundation of the world (Revelation 13:8). The remission was not found in the blood of animals or in the meal offering but in nothing but the blood of Jesus.
Nothing but the Blood will Relieve
Finally, we learn that the blood alone can relieve.
Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the heavens should be purified with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; not that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood of another—He then would have had to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now, once at the end of the ages, He has appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself. And as it is appointed for men to die once, but after this the judgement, so Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation.
Throughout these recent passages in Hebrews, we have seen the underlying motif of the Day of Atonement. I believe that this is the case here as well.
You will recall that, on the Day of Atonement, the high priest would enter the Most Holy Place and the people would wait with bated breath to see if his sacrifice would be accepted. As the high priest emerged from the sanctuary, the people would rejoice with great joy. Their eager anticipation for his appearance was rewarded. They were once again, at least for another year, safe and sound from the wrath of holy God. Their consciences could be soothed that day. The writer obviously has this in mind as he wraps up this chapter.
He begins by reminding us that the earthly tabernacle required purification by nothing but the blood. From here we are then told that, certainly, the antitype (“the heavenly things”) would need to be purified by “better sacrifices than these.” As he has told us before, Jesus Christ was “Himself” (v. 26) this better sacrifice.
But what are these “heavenly things” that required purging with blood? Simply put, it is us! As believers, we are seated in heavenly places in Christ Jesus (Ephesians 2:6). But to sit there we need to be purified. We must be washed in the blood of the Lamb.
Phillips wonderfully comments,
Without the blood, apart from a sacrifice, everything in the tabernacle speaks to privileges that sinners must be denied. There could only be the piercing gaze of God, the tablets of the law open before him while the sinner stands condemned…. But with the blood, applied to every aspect of our relationship with the God who lives in heaven, there is forgiveness, acceptance, blessing, light, and life…. The blood of Christ has made heaven a home for us.15
We need to be purged and, thank God, this is precisely what these passages have been teaching us. We are cleansed, purified, purged by nothing but the blood of Jesus!
Once for All
Though the high priest under the old covenant was required each year to repeat this ritual (v. 25), this is not so with Jesus Christ. He offered Himself “once” (vv. 26, 27, 28). “By his single offering he dealt decisively with sin and secured final salvation.” (Lane)
F. F. Bruce notes, “As it is, Christ has been manifested once on earth at the time of fulfilment in order to deal conclusively with sin.”16 Praise God!
If “once” was not enough to secure redemption, then Jesus would have had to have been offered continually throughout history. On many levels this is preposterous, not the least being that once a man dies, then comes “the judgement” (v. 27). Jesus, the Son of Man, could not die over and over. Preposterous!
Though the effects of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ are eternal, His sacrifice was a “once for all” sacrifice (7:27; 9:12; 10:20). Its effectiveness isperpetual, but its experience was at one point in time. This flies in the face of the Roman Catholic teaching concerning the perpetual sacrifice of Jesus. In their Mass, Jesus is crucified over and over. This is the “theology” behind the crucifix. Such a teaching and practice are a direct contradiction of this apostolic teaching in Hebrews. This theology is, in fact, blasphemous.
The reference to “the end of the ages” (v. 26) is a reference to the end of the old covenant era as it was fulfilled in the new covenant era. That age commenced at the first coming of Christ and will end at His final appearing.
This age has been around for nearly two thousand years and it may be around for another two thousand—or longer. Jesus’ sacrifice has been sufficient for all of this age and will continue to be so. People were saved from their sins in the early church by the blood of Christ and they are saved today by the blood of Christ. Until Jesus returns, sinners will be saved by nothing but the blood of Jesus. This is what makes Mr Spong’s assertion so foolish: “Christianity must change or it will die.” Rather, when it changes its fundamental message, then, and only then, will “Christianity” die. But as it continues to remain faithful to the gospel it will continue to live, and to live well. Our proclamation must never veer from “nothing but the blood of Jesus!”
An Appointed and Anticipated Appearance
The passage closes with an important comparison, whose main emphasis is that Jesus “has appeared, He now appears and He will appear.”17
When a person dies, he faces the judgement of God. He will either be acquitted or will be condemned. There is no second chance. Likewise, when Jesus died, He too faced a judgement. This is why I believe that the greatest act of faith demonstrated by Jesus was “by the sacrifice of Himself” to die (v. 26). He was taking God at His Word. The soul that sins will die (including spiritual death), but since Jesus never sinned, God was “bound” to raise Him from the dead. Jesus knew that, and He knew that the Father knew that, and He was completely confident that the Father would do that. And praise God, He did that!
What is important for our purposes is to note that Jesus, like other men, would also only die once. He would not have a second chance. Thus the preposterousness of Jesus continually dying. Even if this was necessary (which it is not), it would be impossible.
No, when Jesus died, the judgement was an eternal acquittal. He died and His sacrifice was accepted once for all. And in keeping with the Yom Kippur motif, one day our High Priest will appear and there will be a chorus from an innumerable choir that will praise Him.
The early disciples did not eagerly await the Lord emerging from His death on the cross. They were blind concerning their High Priest. (They were in fact sleeping as He prayed the High Priestly prayer in the garden.) Even the faithful women did not eagerly await His appearing. In fact, they came to the grave three days later to tend to His corpse. But had they fully understood the new covenant, they would have eagerly awaited His appearing.
Let us learn from this.
We know that the offering of Jesus Christ was accepted once for all. But we also need to realise that He will one day return to earth, not to deliver us from the guilt of our sin (“apart from sin”) but rather to completely deliver us from all of the effects of sin. He has delivered us from the penalty of sin but He is coming again to save us from the power, pleasure and presence of sin. And those who eagerly await this know that, though it is appointed for man once to die, yet in our case, “but after this, the salvation.” “All the blessings which He won for His people at the first appearing will be theirs to enjoy in perpetual fullness at His second appearing.”18
As Phillips summarises, “Christ died definitively and he lives definitively, securing our salvation by his eternal testimony to his once-for-all work of redemption…. At the second appearance of Christ there will be an end to the business about sin, both on his part and ours.”19 And this is because of nothing but the blood of Jesus.
The Jewish recipients of this letter over 1,900 years ago were in desperate need of this message. They needed to see that all their rituals and all their old covenant religious deeds could never atone for sin. They needed to be persuaded that their hope was in nothing but the blood of Jesus. And the same is true for the vast number of Jews today, and as well as for the vast number of all peoples.
There is a crazy idea amongst many evangelicals that Jewish people will be saved merely because they are Jewish. Many are under the mistaken impression that Jews will be saved in the future by offering sacrifices at a rebuilt temple. This passage in Hebrews gives the lie to that. For clearly salvation, whether one is Jewish or not, comes by nothing but the blood of Jesus. “What the readers needed to know was that one sacrifice was adequate for continual access…. Sin needs no further atonement. All that is necessary is the appropriation of the salvation which Christ’s self-offering has secured.”20
What about you? Do you think that you are an exception? Do you think that you will die and pass the judgement because you came to church? Or because you read your Bible or said your prayers? Do you suppose that you will fare well on that day because you were baptised or because you were sincere? Be done with such lies. Repent and believe the gospel. Richard Phillips notes that “faith has its palms open to receive, not outstretched to grasp of clenched to achieve.”21 So come to the Lord crying for mercy, clinging only to the truth that you will be saved by nothing but the blood of Jesus.
- John Shelby Spong, Why Christianity Must Change or Die: A Bishop Speaks to Believers in Exile (New York: HarperOne, 1999), 95. ↩
- William Cowper, “There is a Fountain Filled with Blood,” 1772. ↩
- Robert Lowry, “Nothing but the Blood,” 1876. ↩
- William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:243. ↩
- Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 172. ↩
- Elvina M. Hall, “Jesus Paid it All,” 1865. ↩
- Charles Wesley, “And Can it Be That I Should Gain?” 1738. ↩
- Wesley, “And Can It Be That I Should Gain?” ↩
- Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:88. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 166. ↩
- R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 235. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 162. ↩
- Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 103–4. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:242. ↩
- Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 324–25. ↩
- F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 221. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 170. ↩
- Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 224. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 329, 31. ↩
- Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 200, 202. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 319. ↩