We are probably familiar with the exhortation, “Don’t just stand there—do something!” But there is also the other side of this coin.
John Foster Dulles served as US Secretary of State from 1953 to 1959 under President Dwight Eisenhower. He was famous for his zeal at trying to put a stop to the USSR’s attempts to bring more and more nations under the Iron Curtain. At one point, he was so actively engaged that someone made what become a characteristic quip: “Don’t just do something, stand there!” Sometimes we need to take a breather; sometimes we do need to simply stand.
The writer to the Hebrews, it would seem, was concerned that his readers do both. First, he wanted them to stop doing (old covenant sacrifices) and to rather do nothing except to accept what Jesus accomplished on the cross. But second, he also wanted to them to not simply stand there but to go forward and to do something. The passage before us is an exhortation to both stand somewhere and then to do something. We are to boldly enter and to stand in God’s presence, and then we are to do three things that will enable us to enjoy God’s presence.
Many of you have entered God’s presence through Christ. As we saw last week, to draw near to God is man’s highest privilege. Yet some who have been born again, for various reasons, are not enjoying the privileges of such an entrance. In the words of our author, they have boldly entered but are not continuing to “draw near.”
Having spent over nine chapters comparing the inadequacy of the old covenant to purge our sins with the complete sufficiency of the new covenant under Christ to do so, the author now exhorts practical application of this doctrine. In other words, what has been secured forever is to be applied now. The author “knows only too well that his exposition of these impressive themes in the earlier chapters is not likely to achieve a great deal if it is to remain unrelated to their everyday lives.”1 He wants application and so he “calls for a response that is willing and ongoing, not begrudged and fitful.”2 He does so by the repetition three times of his beloved “let us” exhortations.
This phrase is found thirteen times in the book. We have come across it four times in chapter 4 and once in chapter 6. And after nearly four chapters of some pretty heavy teaching, our pastor now challenges us to be active as he repetitively fires the exhortation, “Let us.”
The writer tells Christians that we have the boldness to enter (vv. 19–21) and the boldness to enjoy this entrance (vv. 22–25). Therefore, let us do so.
The Boldness to Enter
First, in vv. 19–21, the author tells us that we have boldness to enter.
Therefore, brethren, having boldness to enter the Holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh, and having a High Priest over the house of God.
Be Bold Brothers
The writer reveals his pastoral heart by his use of the word “brethren.” He is careful not to give the impression that he thinks his readers are apostate. He has already indicated that he has better judgement than that (6:9). So here he is tenderly exhorting them to embrace their privilege to “enter the Holiest.” He desires for them to boldly go where no man, merely on his own merit, would ever dare to go. This is the privilege of every Christian. As Guthrie says, “In view of what Christ has done and now is doing, there is no reason why all believers should not approach with confidence.”3 We are to boldly lay hold of Christ and be reconciled to God.
We ought to be like the centurion who so lay hold of Christ that Jesus said, ““ Assuredly, I say to you, I have not found such great faith, not even in Israel” (Matthew 8:10). We ought to be like the woman who was bold enough to reach out and touch Jesus in faith in order to be healed (Luke 8:42–48). We should be bold like John, who leaned on Jesus breast as they reclined around the table at the Last Supper.
As a loving pastor, he is burdened for Christians who are living sub-Christian lives. He wants them to enjoy all that is theirs in Christ. And he is well aware that legalism in the form of ritualism is a huge hindrance to this. Now that their consciences are “purged,” they have no reason to be hesitant. Boldly enter!
Where Angels Fear to Tread
As noted previously, the Day of Atonement motif dominates these chapters. The idea that anyone besides the High Priest would dare enter “the Holiest” was unthinkable. But here the pastor-teacher exhorts his brothers to boldly enter. Without delay, they must rush in where even angels would hesitate to go. But thank God they are not angels; they are sinners saved by grace! Their boldness to enter had nothing to do with irreverent brashness and everything to do with saving faith.
Our writer has been telling us why we should believe on Christ, and now he exhorts us to believe on Him. The time is now! But on what basis can we have such confidence? On what basis do we believe that we can draw near to God? Why can we be so bold? He gives us at least three reasons for such boldness; three reasons that justify our bold belief that Jesus is the Way.
The Blood of Christ
First, we are bold because of the blood of Christ. “Therefore, brethren, having boldness to enter the Holiest by the blood of Jesus” (v. 19).
This is a major theme in Hebrews because blood is God’s prescription for atonement. This is the only way for relationship with God, for “without shedding of blood there is no remission” (9:22). And without remission there is no reconciliation. Only a fool would enter God’s presence in an unreconciled state. Sadly, many do (10:31; Revelation 20:11–15). If you have a problem with the lyrics, “What can wash away my sins? Nothing but the blood of Jesus,” then you had better get over it. In fact, you had better start loving it.
The Body of Christ
Second, we have boldness because of the body of Christ. We enter “by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh” (v. 20).
We are to confidently enter into God’s presence, to boldly enter into relationship with God, because Jesus, by His sacrificial death, has opened the way. He “consecrated” the way by the blood of His Body.
Under the old way, access to God was blocked, and it was quite literally blocked by a thick curtain called the veil. Not so under the “new and living way.” That is, the Body of Christ was the means of unblocking the way.
The word “new” is used only here in the New Testament, and it refers to being new in time; it connotes being fresh. The literal translation is “freshly slaughtered.” It was because Jesus’ body was sacrificed on a tree (Acts 13:29; 1 Peter 2:24), followed by His resurrection, that there is a “living way” to God. We rely no more on dead sacrifices, for access has been secured by the Body of Christ, who was dead and now lives forevermore. As MacArthur says, “If His death could do so much to save me, what must His life be doing in the presence of God to keep me!”4
When Jesus was crucified, some of His last words were, “It is finished” (John 19:30). Immediately, the veil in the temple was torn from top to bottom—by God Himself (Matthew 27:51). This is what is referred to here. By the death of Jesus, the way was and is now opened to God. The Jewish high priest became, technically, unemployed; and a world of priests began to flood the heavenly temple, the true house of God. Are you one of them? Then boldly enter and lay hold of the throne of grace (4:16).
The Building of Christ
Third, we have boldness because of the building of Christ. We are bold because we have “a High Priest over the house of God” (v. 21).
Earlier, we learned that Christ is the Head of a new house of God, the church (3:6). Paul calls the church “God’s building” (1 Corinthians 3:9). And Christ’s “Headship over the house means that Jesus is Lord of the church.”5
Here we are being reminded that, in Christ, we are safe and secure since He is the High Priest over His household. The Father accepts Him and therefore accepts us. He is interceding for us, and the result is that we are always most welcome in the presence of God. Therefore, brethren, let us enter!
It really is amazing that we are the dwelling place of God and that we dwell with Him. But we can be confident about this because of the person and work of Jesus Christ. As Brown notes, “Christians need constantly to be reminded of the blood he shed, the way he opened and the work he does.”6 Dwell upon this, and then draw near and dwell some more!
The Boldness to Enjoy
The author next highlights the truth that we have boldness to enjoy.
Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for He who promised is faithful. And let us consider one another in order to stir up love and good works, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as is the manner of some, but exhorting one another, and so much the more as you see the Day approaching.
In these verses, the writer applies the doctrine of access of vv. 19–21. We are exhorted to enter boldly into the experience of this boldness. Here we find the trilogy of gospel virtues: faith, hope and love. As we embrace the gospel of the person and work of Jesus, then let us experience these virtues.
Let Us Faithfully Draw Near
We experience this bold access by faith (v. 22). Faith is the foundation for our relationship with God. Belief precedes boldness, otherwise all you have is presumption.
The Heart of the Matter
Saving faith is marked by having “a true heart.” This speaks of a genuine (wholehearted) heart trust in Jesus Christ as your once-for-all sacrifice. Christianity is not a set of heartless rituals but is rather a heartfelt response to the grace and mercy of God in Christ. That is why the test of affection for God is a supreme means of examining whether or not one is in the faith. Those saved by God believe Him with all their heart and grow in loving Him with all their heart. This is why Paul says that faith works by love (Galatians 5:6). As we will see later, whatever is going on in the heart will be manifested in what you do with your hands (v. 24).
“Full assurance of faith” speaks of “faith which has reached its mature vigour.”7 It speaks therefore of certainty, of conviction that what you have heard is truth. The result is that you place faith in it. The point is simply that those who have heard the gospel and who truly believe that Christ alone is their only hope because of His person and work will be marked by saving faith. They will believe on Christ and therefore will boldly enjoy Christ.
So we can conclude that the heart of the matter is fundamentally a matter of the heart. Those who can boldly enjoy the Lord are those whose hearts have been changed. But what characterises such a heart? That is, what enables us to experience the presence of the Lord?
A Cleansed Conscience
First, we can experience God’s presence because we have “hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience” (v. 22). The heart that is rooted in saving faith has the privilege of being purged before God. This truth has been repeated often by the writer. We need such repetition. We must, by faith, claim our birthright.
The picture, of course, is that of ceremonially cleansing as it was performed under the old covenant (9:13, 19, 21). Here we are reminded—again—that, through Christ, our consciences no longer need to be burdened. Forgiveness is available (1 John 1:6–9).
It is precisely here, however, where many lose the battle. When we sin, we listen to the evil one who points to the evil deed on our conscience and we subsequently feel condemned. But it is then that we must place our faith once again in the finished work of Christ and experience fresh cleansing. Then, and only then, will we enjoy the bold privilege of the peace of God. Martyn Lloyd- Jones explains:
It is only when I am near to God in Christ that I know my sins are forgiven. I feel his love, I know I am his child and I enjoy the priceless blessings of peace with God and peace within and peace with others. I am aware of his love and I am given a joy that the world can neither give nor take away.8
An “evil conscience” can be translated as “hurtful conscience.” When we refuse to trust Christ for forgiveness then we hurt ourselves and others along the way. Get to the gospel and get over your guilt!
I wonder how often the apostle Paul battled with his conscience as he reflected on his former life of persecuting and murdering Christians. It is no doubt significant that Paul wrote so much of having a clear conscience. He knew what it was to have to embrace God’s forgiveness.
A Baptised Body
Second, we can approach God because we have had “our bodies washed with pure water” (v. 22). I interpret this as referring to baptism upon one’s profession of faith. This verse is very much like its counterpart in 1 Peter 3:21: “There is also an antitype which now saves us—baptism (not the removal of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God), through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.”In other words, baptism is “a pledge to God proceeding from a clear conscience” and so “those who have received this inward cleansing from God may well enjoy that spiritual nearness to Him which is impossible for a polluted conscience.”9
The point is that those who have been saved are unashamedly baptised in identification with His death, burial, resurrection and ascension. It is not that baptism saves, us but rather those who have been saved are those whose consciences have been purged, and they testify to this newness of life in the waters of baptism. Saving faith and water baptism are distinct yet inseparable.
For the Jews who received this original epistle, baptism was very costly. It was a very public statement of loyalty, as well as a statement of turning away from the old covenant system. This is one reason this exhortation was so important. But further, water baptism was a reminder that, in Christ, we have all the benefits secured by Him. Therefore, since He is risen with newness of life at the right hand of the Father, so are we (Colossians 3:1–3). His resurrection is our assurance of entering into the presence of God. We need to remember our baptism when tempted to despair. His resurrection is our assurance that we can boldly enter to boldly enjoy. Have you? Are you? Your prayer life answers the question.
Let Us Hopefully Draw Near
It is one thing to initially draw near to God by faith, but the Christian life calls us to continually draw near. There is a battle for such boldness. This is why the author writes, “Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for He who promised is faithful” (v. 23).
If v. 22 focuses on our bold communion with Christ, then v. 23 focuses on our bold confession of Christ. This is not easy, yet here we are informed that we can win this battle fuelled by hope.
Our hope is with respect to our “confession.” When it comes to the promises of God, there is no such thing as hope-so, but rather there is certain expectation. That is, we continue to enter and to enjoy bold access to God because of the confident expectation that in Christ this is our privilege—forever.
Having confessed this in baptism, further evidence of whether or not this profession came from a true heart is manifested in a hopeful and ongoing confession of Christ (see 3:1; 4:14). As someone has said, “a hopeless Christian is a contradiction of terms.”10
All too frequently, baptismal waters are stirred and that is about the extent of the effect. That is, some who are baptised fall away soon (or eventually) thereafter. The writer knows the temptation. He certainly knows that salvation is of the Lord (Jonah 2:9), but he also knows that those who confess Christ have the God-placed responsibility to follow through. We are to continually draw near to God. We are called to persevere in the faith. Are you?
The words “hold fast” are also found in 3:6, 14. It is a nautical term meaning “to head for,” in the sense of sailing a straight course. It pictures heading straight for one’s destination and not being blown off course (see Acts 27:40). This is not the first time that the writer has made mention of the temptation to being shipwrecked (2:1). We are to keep our eyes on Christ if we will remain well-anchored and not destroyed by the waves and winds of unbelief. We will shortly see a means of grace to help us to stay the course.
I have been reading the biographical account of Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon. In the early 1960s, the Russians had been the first nation to put a man in space. The President of the United States made the commitment that, by the end of the decade, America would put a man on the moon. It has been fascinating to read of all the challenges that NASA had to overcome in order to accomplish this goal, but what struck me as I was reading was that they lived in hope. They believed that they could accomplish their goal; that, despite the challenges that faced them, they would indeed put a man on the moon. They persevered through the challenges and accomplished their goal.
How much more should we as Christians cling in hope to the promises of God, despite the very real challenges that we face!
Moving from the nautical motif, the writer now uses another term to drive home his exhortation to hopeful living (through hopeful drawing near). The words “without wavering” speak of being firm, of being unbending. We could say that the Christian who grasps the gospel will be like an arrow rather than like a bow. We are to head straight for God rather than being wayward from God.
The word for “wavering” is used elsewhere in Scripture of laying down one’s head in sleep (Matthew 8:20). It pictures reclining. In fact, it even pictures surrender (11:34). The point is simply that, in the midst of the battle for boldness, we are not to give in.
Because of the certain expectation that the gospel is true we continue to persevere, to follow Christ, to seek fellowship with God. We continue to boldly draw near to Him while, quite frankly, telling the devil to go to hell. There is no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:1).
We are to be unending in our unbending because “He who promised is faithful.” God’s faithfulness is unending and therefore our hopefulness is unending.
I suppose that, technically, you could argue that, upon death, our hope will become fullness of reality and in that sense hope will end. But until such time our hope is unending in space-time history. Regardless of what we face, God does not change. His gospel does not change and therefore the exhortation to draw near does not change.
The idea of “promise” is prevalent in this epistle. It is found thirteen times—once for each chapter! The point is that God always keeps His promises and that is why we should believe the promise of the new covenant.
The way to forgiveness and fellowship has been opened by God. So no matter what you are going through you must continue to look to Him and to continue to trust Him. Your failure may be killing you but it need not. He is faithful who promised. What God has begun He will faithfully fulfil (Philippians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 5:23–24).
Now, some have wanted a broader practical brush in these studies in Hebrews, but let me simply respond by saying that the gospel is the greatest truth that puts all other truths in proper perspective. In other words, if you know that your sins are forgiven, if you know that therefore you can boldly enter God’s presence and boldly enjoy God’s presence, then regardless of what you are facing this truth will empower you through it. We need this kind of gospel focus and this kind of gospel hope.
Let Us Lovingly Draw Near
With vv. 24–25 the trilogy of Christian virtues is complete. The Christian is to be marked by faith, hope and love. He draws near to God by faith, in hope with love.
And let us consider one another in order to stir up love and good works, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as is the manner of some, but exhorting one another, and so much the more as you see the Day approaching.
But in these verses, the plural emphasis of “let us” (lest we have missed it) comes home without any ambiguity. That is, the Christian is to boldly enter and to boldly enjoy God in the context of others. In other words, drawing near is not for lone rangers. Drawing near is a team effort; it is a family affair. And it is driven by love.
No One Left Behind
We are to have a loving concern for the community of faith.
We are to be concerned that everyone in the community of faith experiences the blessed privilege of bold entrance and the blessed privilege of bold enjoyment. We are to be concerned that no one is left behind.
We are to have such a loving concern for one another that we notice when a brother begins to bend and their hope begins to end. This loving concern is to be lived out in the context of local church life.
Every member is to share in this burden of loving concern. To ignore this is to invite peril. As Moffatt says, “Any early Christian who attempted to live like a pious particle without the support of the community ran serious risks.”11 And the times are not changing.
Let’s see the characteristics of this loving concern and let us practically live it out.
Verse 24 begins, “And let us consider one another.” There are many “one another” passages in the New Testament that testify to the reality that we do not run this race alone (12:1–2). We run it with one another!
It is all too easy in our selfish, individualistic era to pay little heed to the welfare of others unless something of huge magnitude takes place. The horrific beheading of journalist James Foley has made the world concerned. This is understandable. Yet we must realise that someone turning away from Christ has far more eternal significance than the loss of physical life. Jesus said that we are to fear the one who is able to cast both body and soul into hell (Matthew 10:28). So, are you concerned? You should be. Richard Phillips says, “If we are not doing this, then we are nothing more than takers, consumers of religion who are of little use for the eternal destiny of other people.”12
Though we cannot carry the burden for every professing Christian everywhere (to even try and do so would probably result in caring for no one), we are to look around carefully at our own congregation and be concerned for one another.
Do you notice when someone who professes Christ begins to show evidence of not drawing near but rather of drawing away?
Do you notice when a fellow church member shows signs of drifting and of bending to the ways of unbelief?
Do you notice when church members show a disregard for the Word and for the prescribed means of grace?
Obviously, simply being aware of a possible problem is not enough but it is a necessary place to start. But I wonder how observant we are? Are we so self-consumed that we do not notice?
Some time ago I was with my wife on a subway in Hong Kong and noticed with sadness that everyone was so consumed with their handheld devices that no one noticed anyone else. Some time later I read of a stabbing on a San Francisco subway that no one noticed, because everyone was in his own little world on his handheld device. May God deliver our churches from this mentality. May we care enough to notice one another in the church.
Some may think that such a responsibility lies directly with the eldership. But though no elder worth his salt would shirk this responsibility (see Acts 20:28), nevertheless the writer here is not addressing elders; he is addressing the wider body. Clearly, this is the intent of the words, “Let us consider one another.”
Now, I am aware that there are many issues related to this, but let’s not annihilate the principle with a thousand qualifications. Yes, normally if we will engage others we should have a relationship with them (though I would maintain that this point is often overbaked). Yes, at some point you must be a good steward of your resources and those who consistently rebuff you may need to be left alone. However, the responsibility here is clear. We must take it seriously. We must continue to look carefully! Keep your eyes open for those who need to draw near. But there is more that is required. That is, we need to observe but we also need to act.
The reason that we keep our eyes open for one another is because we want to help one another. We consider one another “in order to stir up love and good works” (v. 24).
The words “stir up” mean “to incite,” and are usually used in a negative sense. For example, it is used to describe the sharp contention between Paul and Barnabas in Acts 15:29. Perhaps the author uses this word for that very reason: to make an emphatic and bold statement. Christians are to provoke each other in a positive way to follow Christ. We do so out of “love,” which is obvious since our goal is to stir up love.
The “good works” are perhaps in contradistinction to the “dead works” of an ineffectual old covenant sacrificial system. The word means “beautiful” or “excellent.” The point is that the community of faith is to be concerned that the faith of the community actually works, for faith without works, of course, is dead (James 2:26).
The community of faith has the corporate concern that each member be the real deal. And so, when we observe and detect a waning love for Christ, often marked by a withdrawing from works of service, then we need to come alongside and stir up one another. We not only want one another to draw near to God, but we desire that each draws near with hands full of excellent works to the glory of God.
Live in Community
The passage closes with a final word of exhortation: “not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as is the manner of some, but exhorting one another, and so much the more as you see the Day approaching” (v. 25).
If we will constructively exhort one another to “love and good works,” then we must communicate with one another. That is a basic requirement of exhortation. But to communicate usually requires that we have contact with one another. We must be connected to one another. As Donald Guthrie puts it, “Something more than individual effort is needed if love and good works are to be fostered…. Corporate action is indispensable.”13
Those who draw near to God do so, as we have seen, corporately—in community. As the house of God, the priests are to gather. But obviously there was a problem with the Hebrews. Some were neglecting this privilege and responsibility. They had lost the plot. As Lane observes, “The neglect of worship and fellowship was symptomatic of a catastrophic failure to appreciate the significance of Christ’s priestly ministry and the access to God it provided.”14
A Special Day
If the underlying motif is the Day of Atonement, then perhaps he is emphasising that these believers need to worshipfully gather in the same frame of mind (with, of course, a whole different outlook as the old covenant people). That is, when they gathered (on the Lord’s Day?), they were to do so remembering that there was an atonement for their sins. They would gather sobered by this, but as they exhorted one another by the gospel there would be a corresponding joy.
A Serious Danger
Christians often face doubts and discouragements because of various pressures, including the pressures of our failures. It is for this reason that we need the corporate fellowship to help our perspective. Therefore “to be needlessly absent is to deprive oneself, both of being helped and of helping others, but more seriously of drifting in the direction of danger.”15
Apparently, some were withdrawing from regular worship, even to the point of abandoning such gatherings. How could they fulfil their responsibility to “stir” others to “love and good works” if they were not even present? How could they exhort one another if they were absent from one another?
We don’t know exactly why they were doing so; all we know for sure is that they were guilty of such withdrawal. They were not connected and this writer was concerned—with good reason. As Proverbs 18:1 says, “a man who isolates himself seek his own desire; he rages against all wise judgement.”
This verse makes a very strong case for the necessity of meaningful congregational life.
Now, I have been at this long enough that I have heard about every argument imaginable against frequent gatherings of the Body.
I have heard ad nauseum that you don’t have to go to church to be a Christian (which by the way is not actually a true statement, see Acts 11:23–26). I have heard that going to church twice on a Sunday is nowhere commanded in Scripture. I have been told that to expect such frequent attendance is “legalistic.”
But for the most part all these arguments share the dubious characteristic of missing the point. In fact, what Calvin said so long ago is still very relevant:
There is so much peevishness in almost everyone that individuals, if they could, would gladly make their own churches for themselves…. This warning is therefore more than needed by all of us that we should be encouraged to love rather than hate and that we should not separate ourselves from those … who are joined to us by a common faith.16
A simple reading of this passage makes it very clear that if you are not meaningfully and frequently connected to your church family then you are not fulfilling your responsibility to help them, and in the process you are probably sliding further than you even realise. In fact, you may be in serious spiritual peril.
F. F. Bruce nails it when he notes, “A vainglorious sense of superiority, and of being able to dispense with the spiritual aid of the society, was also the means of inducing many to withdraw from fellowship and from the common worship.”17 He then adds, “To withdraw from the society of their fellow-believers was to court spiritual defeat; only by remaining united could they preserve their faith and witness.”18This is no less true in our day.
I suppose that the commentators are split down the middle on what “the Day” refers to. Some say it refers to the final day of judgement and they connect it to 9:28. Others say that it is a reference to the imminent destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in 70 AD. I side with the latter.
The writer was aware that the prophecy of Matthew 23–24 was on the horizon. He warns them therefore to make sure that they stick together because times were going to get tough. They needed one another. They needed to be connected if they would be constructive for the glory of good and the good of their souls. If they isolated themselves then they ran the risk of apostasy, just as Jesus warned. But if they stuck together, they would endure to the end and be saved.
Though we do not live in such a time frame, we are nonetheless in need of help from one another. The church faces difficulties and many Christians face personal challenges to their faith. You may not be one of those—at least not now—but you have a responsibility to help those who are.
So gather to connect. Don’t withdraw in selfishness; come together to give of yourself. Listen, and apply, the helpful insight of Marcus Dods: “‘and let us consider one another,’ taking into account and weighing our neighbour’s circumstances and especially his risks … acknowledging honest endeavour and making allowance for imperfection.”19
So what can we say to draw this to a close? Let us not just sit there, but rather let us also do something. Let us draw near to God in Christ and do all that we can to draw others along with us. Our day is approaching. May we be found faithful.
- Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 183. ↩
- Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 115. ↩
- Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 213. ↩
- John F. MacArthur, Jr., Hebrews: The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1983), 262. ↩
- Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews, 115. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 185. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 184. ↩
- Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 360. ↩
- F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 251–52. ↩
- MacArthur, Hebrews, 266. ↩
- Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:105. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 364–65. ↩
- Guthrie, Hebrews, 217. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:290. ↩
- Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews, 116. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 188. ↩
- Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 253–54. ↩
- Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 255. ↩
- Marcus Dods, The Expositor’s Greek Testament, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988), 4:347. ↩