If you want to make money in South Africa then I would think that the security industry is the way to go. In a culture that is physically insecure, the promise of greater security is something that most people are willing to pay for.
Unfortunately many (most?) do not give sufficient consideration to the ultimate security they need as they give account before the Judge of the universe. Most, I fear, give little attention to the reality that, one day, they will stand before the living God to account for their lives. Many will hear, “Depart from me,” while others, by the grace of God, will hear, “Enter into the full enjoyment of eternal security.” In which group are you?
For the Christian, the matter of security before the Lord is forever settled. This is because the Lord Jesus Christ is forever seated, interceding for us at the right hand of the throne of God. As Edgar Andrews says, “Our spiritual experience ebbs and flows, but our unchanging High Priest remains constant in his care, compassion and mercy towards us.”1 It is for this reason that we can live with the assurance that the salvation and therefore the safety of our souls is forever settled.
The Lord Jesus has forever saved us from our sins. That is good news. At least it is for those who have some sense of what it means to be a sinner living in a world that is under the wrath of God.
The writer to the Hebrews had a pastoral concern for a very insecure people; a group of believers who were unsettled in their faith. These believers were tempted to return to the sacrificial system of the old covenant. They were doubting the sufficiency because they were doubting the supremacy of Christ and His priesthood. In many ways, they were questioning whether the new covenant was indeed better than the old covenant. The writer wants to assure them that it is. And there is no better way to exhort believers than through the exposition of Scripture. He does so by an appeal to an ancient text: Psalm 110—with special emphasis on v. 4. He began to do so in chapter 5 and now, after a pause, he returns to it in chapter 7.
Here, he fleshes out the theme of the Melchizedekian order of priesthood.
He shows that Melchizedek was a type of Christ in a number of ways, but most notably in that the priesthood of Jesus is one that transcends time. Since He has no beginning of days nor end of life, the priesthood of Christ Jesus our Lord is continual; it is forever due to His “power of an endless life” (v. 16). And what this means for His people is that we have the biblical promise of eternal security. Our salvation is forever settled.
Those who have experienced forgiveness of sins in Christ are continually kept by Christ because of the constant and continual intercession by Christ. This theme is driven home in the passage before us.
As we saw previously, Christ’s priesthood gives us a better hope because it is a better priesthood. In the passage before us we see three reasons why the priesthood of Jesus is better than the priesthood of Aaron.
The Priesthood of Jesus is Promised
The first reason that Christ’s priesthood is better is because it was promised and is therefore inviolable. This is stated in vv. 20–22.
And inasmuch as He was not made priest without an oath (for they have become priests without an oath, but He with an oath by Him who said to Him: “The Lord has sworn and will not relent, ‘You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek’”), by so much more Jesus has become a surety of a better covenant.
The Swearing of an Oath
The essence of this chapter is found in the word “oath.” In fact, this concept of an oath bookends the passage (vv. 20–21, 28).
The writer has already quoted Psalm 110 numerous times, but here he squeezes even more truth from this text. Quoting it in full he writes, “The Lord has sworn and will not relent [change His mind], ‘You are a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.’” Whatever this means, it is clear that the action is inviolable. It is unalterable. What is promised is guaranteed.
The writer makes the observation that, when it came to the Aaronic priests, no oath was ever involved with their ordination (v. 21). They were simply appointed to fill this role (see Exodus 28:1). As Hughes points out, “the Aaronic priests ascended to their position, not on the basis of divine oath, but rather because of divine instruction.”2 But with Jesus, His “ascension” (literally) to this position was accompanied by an oath. We must ask, why? Well, to answer that question we need to look back to Hebrews 6:13–18, where an oath is also mentioned.
There we learn that, when God made the promise to Abraham concerning gospel victory, He confirmed it with an oath. Now when God makes a promise, further confirmation is not necessary; after all, God cannot lie. So why did God give an oath concerning His promise to Abraham? Because, in mercy, the Lord condescended to give further assurance to Abraham, as well as to his spiritual descendants (v. 17), that He will bring His gospel promise to pass. God was giving a “guarantee,” as it were, to Abraham—not for God’s sake, but for the sake of Abraham as well as the sake of the likes of you and me.
It is for this very reason that the Lord invested the Lord Jesus as the High Priest with an oath. In fact, v. 22 substantiates this interpretation when it says, “by so much more [that is, by the oath] Jesus has become a surety of a better covenant.” The word translated “surety” or “guarantor” (ESV) is used to speak of the permanence of the priesthood of Jesus. As Leon Morris helpfully summarises, “The oath declares the purpose of God in an absolute fashion…. The new priesthood is permanent. There is no question of its ever being done away.”3
The term denotes “a bond, a collateral, or some form of material guarantee that a debt will be paid or a promise fulfilled. But it may also refer to an individual who offers his own life as the guarantor of another person.”4
Consider a biblical illustration.
Toward the end of the book of Genesis, Joseph was sold into Egyptian slavery by his brothers. By God’s providence, Joseph was elevated to the position of Egyptian prime minister. When famine struck, Jacob send ten of Joseph’s brothers to Egypt for food. They came to Joseph, but did not recognise their brother. He gave them food, but warned them that he would not give them anything again unless they brought their youngest brother, Benjamin, with them next time.
When the family needed food again, Jacob encouraged his sons to return to Egypt, but they told him they could not without Benjamin. He was reluctant to send Benjamin, but at that point Judah, human ancestor of Jesus, offered to stand as surety for Benjamin. If anything happened to Benjamin, Judah was willing to forfeit his life. It seems that standing as surety runs in the family, for Jesus today stands as our guarantor.
A Better Covenant
The writer then in v. 22 says that what is being guaranteed is “a better covenant.” In other words, since God has made an oath concerning the eternality of Jesus’ priesthood, therefore we have the guarantee that we are under a “better covenant.” But just what is this “better covenant”?
The word “better” means “superior,” in the sense of “more advantageous.” This is an important word, found in Hebrews ten times. “Covenant” speaks of a binding agreement. So we can conclude that this binding agreement between God and believers is superior to the old covenant. And as we have already seen, it is more advantageous because by it we are able to “draw near to God” (v. 19).
Earlier, he made the point that, with the change of the priesthood, by necessity came also a change in the law (v. 12). In other words, the rules by which one approached God changed with the priesthood of Jesus Christ. Now, he uses the word “covenant” (v. 22) as a synonym for this “law” that has changed. He introduces here a word that will be found sixteen more times in the letter—fifteen of which occur in chapters 7–10. This “better covenant” is what he will flesh out more fully as the “new covenant” in chapters 8–10.
Without going into detail concerning the new covenant at this point, we need to realise that clearly he is saying that the old covenant—with its Aaronic priesthood and sacrificial system—has been replaced (v. 18) with a better covenant. This is why we have a “better hope through which we draw near to God” (v. 19). This is guaranteed by Jesus. The point that the writer is making is that Jesus Christ, “through his death, exaltation, and installation as heavenly priest, provides security that the new and better covenant will not be annulled.”5 And since the priesthood of Jesus has been confirmed forever, the salvation of the believer is forever settled.
Red Flag, Raging Bull
We cannot take the time now to delve deeply into this, but consider that, for an unbelieving Jew, such an assertion would be like waving a red flag before a bull. It was radical and even dangerous. The writer has stated that not only has the old covenant been annulled (v. 18) but a new covenant—a better covenant—has replaced it forever. God has promised, with an oath.
Nobody Does It Better
The entire argument that the new covenant is better than the old covenant hinges on the “new” priesthood being better than the old priesthood. The new covenant is better because of the High Priest who brought it to pass. The new covenant can do what the old covenant could never do because Jesus Christ can do what no merely human priest could do.
It is important for us to observe how the author approaches this subject. He does so in a deliberately Christ-centred way. He does not offer promises to people until he first proves the worthiness of this great High Priest. This is why He mentions Jesus in v. 22. He wants his readers to remember who Jesus is before detailing what He does. There must be a bowing to Christ before there can be the blessings of belonging to Him.
How the church of our day needs this lesson! Where there is no exaltation of Christ there can be no real and meaningful evangelism for Christ. We need the reminder of who He is; namely, He is Jesus, the one who saves us from our sins (Matthew 1:21). And when we come to appreciate His person and work, we will come to rest in Him with the assurance that our salvation is forever settled. In other words, we must increasingly appreciate the one who, on the night on which He was betrayed and arrested, took the cup and said, “This is My blood of the new covenant” (Matthew 26:28). What follows proves beyond all argument that Jesus Christ was qualified to do so.
The Priesthood of Jesus is Permanent
In vv. 23–25 we learn the second reason that Jesus’ priesthood is better: because it is permanent. His priesthood is unchangeable and unfailing.
Also there were many priests, because they were prevented by death from continuing. But He, because He continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood. Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.
The writer here offers further evidence of the superiority of the priesthood of Jesus. He provides further proof that the new covenant, with Christ as its guarantor, is better than the old covenant. He does so by highlighting both the perpetual nature of His priesthood and its powerful effectiveness.
In vv. 23–24 we read of the perpetual continuity of Jesus’ priesthood.
These verses highlight that Jesus Christ is always “on the job.”’ His priesthood has no ending. He stays on the job.
The Aaronic priesthood, of course, was one marked by continual succession. There was a continuity of the corporate priesthood but not of the individual priest. We see this as early as Numbers 20:28 upon the death of Aaron. All of the high priests shared the common epithet “and he died.” They were “prevented by death from continuing.” Therefore, the Aaronic priesthood was constantly changing.
Josephus reckons that some 83 high priests served from the inception of the Levitical priesthood to its ending in 70 AD. High priests came and died. No priest remained forever a priest.
We should consider that some who served in this line were better than others. Some no doubt were more loved and respected than others. When there was a death of a high priest the continuity of the ceremonies continued, but the confidence of the people no doubt wavered. On each Day of Atonement there may have been uncertainty as to whether this particular new high priest would be accepted. I suppose the closest we can come is to consider what it is like when a local church faces a change in the pastorate. As there is a change in the pastorate there is often great uncertainty as to the future health of the church. Many times all remains well, but sometimes problems arise and the church is worse off. But when it came to the high priest, it was truly a matter of eternal life and death. If he was rejected then the congregation would be rejected.
The writer’s point, however, is that, with Jesus as the God-appointed and God-anointed High Priest, there is no longer any concern for “He continues forever” with an absolutely “unchangeable priesthood” (v. 24). Since He is Priest forever, our salvation is forever settled!
The priesthood of Jesus does not “pass away.” Literally it does not “transgress.” It does not move away from where it is. And since it is at the throne of grace, we should be grateful that it does not move beyond that!
Jesus continues forever because He is sinless, and therefore His priesthood continues forever. This means that we are safe and sound before holy God. It is settled forever. Our confidence in the day of judgement lies in that “as He is, so are we in this world” (1 John 4:17). We are counted as holy as He is by His imputed righteousness.
The old covenant priesthood was continually undergoing change because of “death.” The priests died because they sinned (Romans 5:12; 6:23). But of course Jesus is “a priest forever” because He never dies. And He never dies because He never sinned, nor does He sin, nor will He ever sin. He is eternally righteous and therefore all who are in Him are eternally safe. As A. W. Pink noted, “‘[Jesus] dies as a priest,’ whereas ‘they died from being priests.’ In their case, death terminated their office. In his case death and resurrection fulfilled his office.”6 Yes, our salvation is forever settled.
Verse 25 shows that Jesus is powerfully capable to save and secure.
In v. 25 we are informed, quite clearly and very logically, that since Jesus, our High Priest, abides forever and is therefore able to save forever. He stays as priest forever to save His people forever. He stays to save. That is gospel!
The word translated “uttermost” means “completely” or “comprehensively.” This refers to several things.
For one, Jesus does save, literally, to the uttermost. Everyone for whom Christ died, regardless of where they are on the planet, will be saved by His high priestly work.
Further, the term includes the idea of “eternally.” As we have seen, Jesus saves forever.
Finally, the main emphasis is on the fact that Jesus saves His people fully. He saves us from the penalty, the power, the pollution, the pleasures and, one day, the very presence of sin.
We can conclude that Jesus, in His high priestly role, saves His people everywhere, in every way and in every period of time. Yes, Jesus lives up to His name (Matthew 1:21).
The word “save” means “to deliver.” Jesus, as our High Priest, delivers us from the wrath of God and the ruin of sin. The old covenant priesthood could never do this. The old covenant priests lacked the power to do so. But not Jesus! He has all power in heaven and on earth and therefore we can be forever settled in the truth that He is able. He is able to save every one of His people (John 6:35–40). He is able to save every one of His people from every one of their sins. He has not weakened over time. He has not lost His resolve over time. He will see His people through!
Whom He Saves
Of course, those whom He saves are a particular kind of people. They are those who “come to God through” Jesus Christ. Jesus saves those who recognise that they need a priest; those who recognise their need for a mediator; those who recognise that God is holy and they are not; those who recognise that God is righteous and have no confidence in their own self-righteous; those who recognise, with a repentant heart, that they deserve hell as much as the worst person they know.
I was recently ministering at a conference at another church, and the pastor pointed out to me a woman who had come for the first week before who was a prostitute. He further informed me that it was her husband who was putting her out on the street to earn money! When the pastor first met the man, he said that he felt he wanted to throttle him rather than welcome him—and I could understand his emotion. But as he spoke to the man, and the man recognised his need for God, the pastor thanked God for the opportunity to minister to a family that recognised they are sick and need the Physician. Those who are more upright, but who consequently fail to realise that they are soul sick and in need of the Physician, are actually worse off (cf. Luke 5:27–32)!
This was a particularly important point to be driven home to the original readers of Hebrews. As we have seen, many were tempted to listen to their unbelieving Jewish friends and family and to seek to approach God by the old covenant sacrificial system. This, no doubt, is one reason that the author stresses God’s holiness in this epistle. His desire was that, as they became aware of His holiness, they would feel the weight of their sinfulness, and this would in turn lead them to see their need for the Saviour.
Again, for many Jews then (and for many today), the problem was (and is) spiritual blindness. They simply did not see the pollution of their sin and therefore were quite content with a plaster over this cancer. They needed to come to the point of recognising their need for the God-ordained, God-sworn (v. 20) Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 1:15). As long as they clung to sinful man (the Aaronic priesthood) as their hope, they remained doomed. Their only hope for eternal security was the person and work of Jesus Christ. And so it is for you and me.
Jesus Himself proclaimed “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me” (John 14:6). Peter learned this well and subsequently proclaimed, “There is no other name [than that of Jesus Christ] under heaven given among men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12).
Though most of us are not tempted to try and resurrect the Levitical sacrificial system, nevertheless the same challenge confronts us today: the error that salvation can be found in other ways than Christ alone.
Practicing Jews today still strive to attain acceptance with God by keeping the law. Roman Catholics add a wide array of things to faith alone in Christ alone in order to attain salvation. Any teaching that endorses self-salvation or another saviour falls short of exalting Jesus Christo in the position to which the Father raised Him.
The bottom line is simply this: If you are not represented before God by Jesus Christ—the Jesus Christ of the Scriptures—you are without hope because you are without God on your side in this world (Ephesians 2:12). And if you die that way, then you will find yourself judged and rejected by Him on judgement day (see Revelation 20:11–15; 21:8).
Richard Phillips puts itpointedly: “Until you abase yourself before him, acknowledging your need for mercy and grace—admitting that unless God will save you, you cannot be saved—until then you will only worship yourself and your fine religious attainments.”
But note that this has to do not only with judgement day. Rather, since Jesus is currently interceding for His people, He is able to save you from your sins today. This brings us to our final observation concerning the powerful capability of Jesus our High Priest.
How He Saves
Verse 25 may be one of the most precious verses in the Bible. I trust that we will come away committed to it being one of the most practically applied verses in the Bible.
The writer informs us that Jesus is able to completely save us because of His perpetual presence before God. This is the thrust of the statement, “since He ever lives to make intercession for them.” Jesus saves His people because of where He is located.Let me explain.
The word “intercession” means, literally, “to meet with,” and it conveys the concept of representing or speaking on behalf of another. Jesus does this for His people. He is our go betweenbefore God. The present tense is used, which means that Jesus continues to save us. But what does this intercession look like? In considering this matter of intercession, we must avoid a couple of errors.
First, Jesus does not intercede for us ineptly. That is, He alone can and does intercede for His people. He does not need the help of Mary or of saints dead or living. He does not need the help of our supposed meritorious works. Jesus is able.
Second, Jesus does not intercede pleadingly before a reluctant Judge. After all, it was the Father who sent the Son into the world. Jesus was sent by God on our behalf and He has sworn that Jesus is a priest forever on our behalf. God is for us (see Romans 8:31–34).
So precisely what should we see that Jesus is doing? Well, He is no doubt praying for us (John 17:1–11, 20). He is preserving us (John 18:1–8). He is advocating for us (1 John 2:1–2). And this is all done “merely” by His presence at the throne of God.
Remember that this context is driven by the theme of Christ as our surety.So we should see that, as Jesus sits at the throne of God above, “he guarantees to men that God will fulfil his covenant of forgiveness, and he guarantees to God that those who are in him are acceptable.”7
Since Jesus is continually seated at the throne of God, it is therefore always the throne of grace(4:16). It is at the throne where believing sinners are accepted in the Beloved. Our salvation is forever settled. What a glorious intercession! What a glorious Saviour!
Christian, take heart: When you sin, He is for you and He will forgive you. When you fail, He is able to cleanse you and to restore you. And when you think you are doing fine, He smiles at the Father and works in your life to deliver you from your self-righteousness.We can say that, quite literally, He lives for you. And as the final section reveals, He lives for you because He died for you. Such experiential knowledge enables us to be forever settled.
The Priesthood of Jesus is Perfect
In vv. 26–28, we see that Jesus’ priesthood is better because it is perfect. It is incorruptible and irreplaceable. In fact, it is inimitable.
Perhaps the question at this point might be, on what basis can it be argued that Jesus “always lives to make intercession for” believers?Or with reference to another claim, on what basis can it be established that Jesus has “the power of an endless [indestructible] life” (v.16)? Both questions are answered in this final section of chapter 7.
I found Richard Phillips very helpful in the study of these verses. He makes the observation that “the chapter is like a doctrinal staircase climbing ever higher until the great summary statement in verses 26–28.”8
These verses contain one of the most glorious descriptions of the Lord Jesus Christ to be found anywhere in Scripture.We will divide our examination of these under three headings.
The Character of Jesus
Verse 26 highlights the character of Jesus: “For such a High Priest was fitting for us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and has become higher than the heavens.”
In a phrase, this description portrays Jesus as the sinless Saviour. And it is precisely because of His exalted character that the text informs us, literally, that “such a high priest was fitted to us.” In other words, Jesus was perfectly suited to be our eternal High Priest. As Phillips notes, “In terms of both His person and His work, [He is] perfectly suited for our predicament and perfectly able to save us to the uttermost.”9 Because of who He is, we who have believed on Him—and who continue to believe on Him—have every reason to be forever settled.Jesus was perfectly suited to be our eternal High Priest by virtue of His character, which was proven by His conduct and attested by God at His coronation.
We might say it this way:Because Jesus was perfectly suited, He is perpetually seated, and we should be peacefully settled.
Jesus is described as “holy, harmless [innocent], undefiled [unstained].” It has been said by another that this threefold description refers to Jesus in relation to God, to others and to Himself. Nevertheless, Jesus is certainly different than any priest who has gone before. In fact, the writer tells us that Jesus is “separate from sinners” as attested by the reality that He is “higher than the heavens.” This is descriptive of Jesus being transcendently exalted above any creature. It is reminiscent of Philippians 2:9:“God has exalted Him and given Him a name which is above every name.” We can conclude that, because Jesus was perfectly righteous in His vocationon earth, He has a perfectly righteous location in heaven: the throne of God.
So, because He is “separate from sinners,” we can never be separated from God (Romans 8:31–39).
The Contrast of Jesus
In v. 27, the picture of Jesus as our High Priest in highest heaven is now contrasted with the Aaronic priesthood. Jesus “does not need daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the people’s, for this He did once for all when He offered up Himself.”
It is wonderful how the writer wants to say all that He can to show the glory of Christ to these struggling Christians. Let this teach us that Christ-exalting doctrine is what the beleaguered Christian and church needs. As we see the glory of Christ, our assurance grows—as does our joy. The conviction that our salvation is forever settled is a constructive one.
The verse drives home the truth that Jesus is perfectly suited to be our eternal Priest who forever intercedes for us. We are told that, unlike the Aaronic priesthood, Jesus did not and does not (because He need not) offer a sacrifice daily either for His own sins or for our sins. The fundamental reason is that, as MacArthur notes, “sinlessness needs no sacrifice.”10 But further, the text tells us that Jesus offered up His sinless life on our behalf once for all.That significant phrase is found in 9:12 and 10:10, and it drives home the truth that no more sacrifices are needed because of the uniqueness of this Priest. Let me illustrate.
In our study of the book of Exodus, we noted that the High Priest was commanded to wear a certain outfit. The garments were made of the same kind of materials from which the tabernacle was constructed.They were heavenlyand heavily symbolic of the presence of God. Without this attire, the high priest could not enter the tabernacle to intercede on behalf of the people. If he would be successful in mediating between God and men, he must, literally, be dressed for success.
Richard Phillips, commenting on this, helpfully notes that the high priest under the old covenant wore these garments, in the words of Calvin, as a costume.That is, he was well aware that he was not holy, innocent and unstained.
Every (honest) high priest knew that what he wore externally did not line up with what he was internally. Each time he offered the sacrifices on the altar—particularly on the Day of Atonement—hewas painfully aware that it was a costume. He was aware that he was not the real deal. He knew he was a sinner who needed a saviour. He may have been perfectly suited for the ceremony, but he was imperfectly stained with sin.
But not Jesus! His external perfection was matched by His internal perfection. In fact, it could be argued that the former flowed from the latter. He was truly dressed for success.
We need to keep this before us. We need to embrace this once-for-all sacrifice daily. And we dare not neglect and reject it, for there is no other sacrifice (10:26–27).
Be encouraged, Christian: The spotless character of Jesus assures us that our acceptance before God is forever settled.
The Coronation of Jesus
Finally, v. 28 connects with what has just been said and concludes the entire argument by pointing us to the coronation of Jesus: “For the law appoints as high priests men who have weakness, but the word of the oath, which came after the law, appoints the Son who has been perfected forever.”
Once again we are told that “the law appoints” priests while the “oath” appointed Christ. We are again reminded of the kind of men who are appointed as priests; namely, those who “have weakness.” Of course, this refers to their mortality because they are sinners. They died. The Aaronic priesthood was therefore imperfect when it came to bringing sinners near to God (vv. 11–19). But according to Psalm 110:4, which was written “after the law,” God “appoints the Son [as High Priest] who has been perfected forever.”
The “Son” language is coronation imagery, which of course is a fundamental theme of Psalm 110. The point being made is that Jesus Christ, having perfectly fulfilled all righteousness, was crowned King and consecrated as High Priest. He is our King-Priest forever. In fulfilment of the type of Melchizedek, Jesus is both the King of righteousness and King of peace. Truly, in Him righteousness and peace have kissed each other (Psalm 85:10).
Jesus is separate from sinners; He has departed from this sin-cursed world having earned the right to be at the throne of God. His distinct location is the assurance of our security. In His vocation, He proved Himself to be the Priest of the new covenant and He has been rewarded with a unique location upon His coronation by the Father (see Psalms 2 and 110). And this means that we may and can draw near to God. The issue is, once for all, forever settled. That my friend, is good news. That is what we call the gospel.
So the question confronting you now is a most important one: Is Jesus Christ interceding for you? Do you know this? Are you sure? Can you say that it is forever settled? If not, then may it be settled today.
- Edgar Andrews, A Glorious High Throne: Hebrews Simply Explained (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2003), 208. ↩
- R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 1:204. ↩
- Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:69–70. ↩
- William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 1:188. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 1:188. ↩
- Andrews, A Glorious High Throne, 207. ↩
- Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12:70. ↩
- Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 254. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 254. ↩
- John F. MacArthur, Jr., Hebrews: The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1983), 202. ↩