Following Orders (Leviticus 18:1-5)

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I recently read about a pastor of a large conservative church who was fired a week after he read and preached from Leviticus 18. He was unceremoniously shown the door because it was said that such a use of the pulpit was too “negative.”

Why would professing believers respond in such a way to God’s Word? The answers may be many, but surely underlying such an outlook is the truth, as this chapter reveals, that God makes the rules and, generally speaking, we don’t like to be told what we can and cannot do. We don’t like it when others give us orders. This is so particularly when the orders address our private lives; especially when such orders address our bedroom.

But regardless of the conclusions of other congregations regarding this chapter, we now begin what will be at least a two-part study of Leviticus 18.

Before we begin, and before you decide that this is going to be a negative study, let me put your mind at ease. Leviticus 18 is actually a positive study. It is a study about the blessing of order—God’s order, that is.

God is orderly, and therefore He expects that His creation do all things “decently and in order” (1 Corinthians 14:40). Creation attests to this axiom (see Genesis 1—2) and His Word further substantiates it (Titus 1:5).

Leviticus 18—20 serves as an illustration of this principle as God commands His people to follow His orders in all aspects of their lives. But God is not some kind of a cosmic drill sergeant who delights simply in giving orders; rather, our loving God gives us orders in order that we might have life, and that we might have it abundantly (John 10:10). I appreciate the words of pastor and theologian Derek Tidball, who writes, “It should really come as no surprise that the God who made us knows better, than we ourselves know, how we should function in His world. It should not surprise us that obeying the Maker’s instructions is likely to bring the best out of us and lead us to live life to the fullest.”1 This is a fundamental lesson of the Holiness Code, as revealed in Leviticus 18—20. This is particularly the case when it comes to God’s laws regarding sexuality and marriage, as revealed in chapter 18.

Over the next few studies, we will encounter many “you shall nots” in this section, which accentuate the positive truth that God desires His people to live an abundant life. That is, in fact, why the prohibitions exist in the first place. Therefore, in our studies I trust that we will come to appreciate the truth (among others) that God’s law is intended for our benefit. The sooner we take His Word seriously, the sooner we will experience His blessings. Today, we study 18:1-5 with a view to understanding God’s order and our need to follow His orders. We will do so under two main headings.

We are Responsible to Follow God’s Orders

First, we learn that we are responsible to follow God’s orders (vv. 1-4).

Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘I am the Lord your God. According to the doings of the land of Egypt, where you dwelt, you shall not do; and according to the doings of the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you, you shall not do; nor shall you walk in their ordinances. You shall observe My judgements and keep My ordinances, to walk in them: I am the Lord your God.

(Leviticus 18:1-4)

There is an order to following orders

Before we focus on the first five verses, it may be helpful for us to understand the overall context of these words.

Chapters 18—20 compose what many refer to as the Holiness Code or the Code of Conduct for the children of Israel. In these verses, we are informed some 50 times that Yahweh their God had commanded such behaviour. In these three chapters we have God’s revealed expectations for how His people were to live as they entered the land of Canaan, having been redeemed from the clutches of Egypt. We might say that these three chapters outline their expected sanctification.

This needs to be emphasised, because in the preceding two chapters God had given them specifics with reference to the Day of Atonement and the absolute necessity of blood as the means of atonement. In other words, those chapters dealt with the matter of justification, and so it is only logical that issues of sanctification would follow next. And they do in chapters 18—20 (and following). As Rushdoony observes, “Atonement mandates certain things: it is a moral fact with moral consequences. Hence, the covenant people, as the just people, are told bluntly that their lives must be radically different from the lives of Egyptians and Canaanites.”2

As I trust we will see at the end of this study, we do not earn God’s salvation by following His orders. However, those who have been saved by God’s grace have obedience to His orders very high on their agenda. Their belief affects their behaviour. Their credenda affects their agenda.

James made this abundantly clear when He argued that faith without works is dead, being alone. The believer in the Lord Jesus Christ will seek to order his life according to God’s revealed order. This leads us to the next point.

There is an obligation in following orders

For the believer, following orders is not an option.

Covenantal formulation and our obligation

The audience that is called to hear these commands is “the children of Israel”; those who, by virtue of God’s grace, have been brought out of Egypt and into a covenant relationship with Him. Note the prologue: “I am the LORD your God.” This is covenantal terminology that would have been recognised as such by those comprising the children of Israel. “‘I am the Lord your God’ highlights divine authority as the basis for moral and ethical obligations.”3 Further,

this self-identifying formula accentuates the fact that these commandments come from God, and God expects the Israelites to obey with great care, since it is the Lord’s authority that stands behind these instructions.4

Wenham writes, “There is a givenness about them; little attempt is made to justify these rules.”5 God, as God, makes the rules. Deal with it!

It has long been noted that these chapters follow the ancient model of covenant treaties between a conquered people and their sovereign. In this case, God had graciously (and sovereignly) entered into covenant with the children of Israel and now He (once again) laid out the terms of the covenant with them. He had ethical expectations for those whom He had saved. And these were revealed in this Code of Conduct.

The phrase “I am the LORD your God, is found some 34 times in the Old Testament, with 21 of these occurring in Leviticus, of which 13 are found in chapters 18—20. It was the formula that God used when He appeared to deliver them (Exodus 6:7) and when He declared His law to them (Exodus 20:1-2).

Relational Responsibilities

The point that needs to be emphasised is that this Code of Conduct was being revealed in relationship. God had secured a saving (redemptive) relationship between Himself and the children of Israel. This redemption gave God the right to rule those whom He had redeemed. Ross notes, “It was not simply good advice that was offered to Israel here—it was a matter of covenant loyalty. . . . This treaty form thus impressed the covenant responsibilities on the people. . . . Any people who owed their existence to election and creation cannot disregard the one who brought them to this place.”6

This principle of covenantal obligations must never be forgotten. As Paul told the Corinthian believers, “you are bought with a price therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit which are God’s” (1 Corinthians 6:19-20).

Since, as we have seen, these commandments (rules) were given in the context of loving and redemptive relationship, there need not be any sense of hardship about these laws. As John would write many hundreds of years later, “His commandments are not grievous” (1 John 5:3). As Tidball notes,

In addressing his people like this, God is using his personal name and speaking with them out of a committed and intimate relationship. He is using the name that is associated primarily with his promise to deliver Israel from Egypt. It communicates not so much his authority and right to command, as his “incomprehensible grace.” He is the God who is faithful to his promises.7

We of the new covenant must remember that we too are in a relationship that entails covenantal obligations. One example of this principle, which Jesus taught, is found in His words, “If you love me, keep my commandments” (John 14:15). This is essentially what the Lord was revealing to His people through Moses. Ross provides this helpful reminder:

The righteous must be vigilant in maintaining their allegiance to the LORD God because the wickedness of this world provides an overwhelmingly powerful threat. What is truly amazing is that although the moral impurity of this world is perverse and detestable by any simple assessment, the more it is tolerated the more acceptable and appealing it becomes.8

As an example of this, consider the Church of England’s recent move to drop its opposition to gay clergymen in civil partnerships becoming bishops.9 As God’s prescription for human sexuality has become more and more perverted in the world, so worldliness has entered the church.

A couple more things also need to be noted.

First, everyone is in a covenant relationship with God—either one of works by creation or one of grace by the new creation. This means that everyone is responsible and therefore accountable to God.

Second, covenantal living is ordered living, which is abundant living. God rules and therefore we must obey God’s rules.

This chapter (and the next two chapters) serve as God’s authoritative, immutable and loving call to ordered living so that we might have abundant living. As the ESV Study Bible comments, “The laws in this chapter can be seen as commanding people to avoid any action that ignores the order that God revealed in His creation.” But why? Well, besides the ultimate reason—that orderly living honours the Creator—orderly living is good for you!

If the children of Israel would indeed enjoy the abundant life that God had promised to them then they would need to live orderly—in sexual, social, economic, familial and every other sphere of life addressed by Scripture; that is, every sphere!

The chapters make clear that God expects His people to live differently, to be unique. This is not because God is a killjoy but rather because He is a joy-giver. He knows that the way He has designed the universe is orderly, and that as long as His rules are followed such order is a means to abundant life. However, if we disobey His rules then we will experience disorder; that is, we will experience chaos rather than cosmos. And chaos always produces trouble, pain and sorrow. Rather than abundant living, disorder produces impoverished living. Just ask Adam and Eve.

When God created the world He did so in an orderly manner and commanded man to keep the order. God originally transformed chaos into cosmos as a means for man to live abundantly (Genesis 1:1-3ff). And as long as man obeyed the rules then cosmos (“order”) would continue and so would abundant living. But, of course, we know that this was not the case. Adam and Eve listened to the lies of the evil one, with the result that they broke God’s rules and chaos flowed like a flood into the world. Man chose autonomy over God’s authority with the result that impoverished living has been the lot of humanity ever since.

God’s rules are loving rules. One proof of the depravity of man is that we refuse His rule, time and again, with the same result: chaos. Einstein is reported to have said that insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result. That is a good way to describe rebellious living: insanity.

However, if we see God’s authoritative law as wise and loving, then we will repent of our insane pursuit of autonomous lawlessness and will submit to our covenantal obligations. The fruit will be abundance. I am not speaking, by the way, of trouble-free living, but rather of living with unnecessary trouble caused by needless sinning.

Life in a fallen world is difficult enough; there is no need to make it worse by rebelling against God’s loving law.

In a recent interview of Rick Warren, pastor-teacher of Saddleback Community Church in Southern California, Piers Morgan said with reference to homosexual marriage, “The Bible . . . [is] well-intentioned but . . . basically inherently flawed. Hence the need to amend it.” Speaking of gay rights, Morgan asserted that “it’s time for an amendment to the Bible.” Warren responded that there is “not a chance” of that happening. “What I believe is flawed,” he continued, “is human opinion, because it constantly changes.”10 Well said! Man’s autonomous opinion constantly vacillates whereas God’s infallible Word remains constant.

It is vital that we come to grips with the reality that, if we will live abundantly, we must recognise and joyfully submit to God’s authority. Solomon understood this truth, and counselled his son in the book of Proverbs to obey God’s law (see, for example, Proverbs 3).

Salvation is an authority issue. This is true when it comes to justification (by grace alone through faith alone in Christ alone according to God’s Word alone to God’s glory alone). That is, there is only one way to be saved and that is God’s way—alone! If we hang on to something or someone other than Christ alone—if we seek atonement in any other way than that which is prescribed by God—then we are challenging His authority and we are exalting our autonomy. That is not salvation but rather damnation. And the same holds true in the area of sanctification.

We can only become holier in practice as we obey God’s rules. According to Romans 8:1-5, Christ redeems us from the curse of the law and then brings us back to the law so that we might freely obey the law and live pleasing to the Lord. Such is an abundant life.

In summary, if the children of Israel were expected to respond to such love, how much more the children of God (John 1:12; 1 John 3:1-2)?

Under the new covenant, just as much as under the old covenant (if not more), the believer is under covenantal obligation to obey God’s rules. The believer is under obligation to live orderly as defined by our covenantally faithful God. But following orders is not easy in a law-defying age. This brings us logically (and orderly!) to our next point.

There is opposition to following orders

After the prologue to the covenant (vv. 1-2), the specific injunctions are enumerated (vv. 3-4). These two verses serve as a summary of what the Lord expects of His children. Like father, like son.

The Lord reveals that His people were to behave differently than the surrounding culture because, by His grace, they are different. Their being was to be reflected in their behaving. And this is because, fundamentally, their belief system was different, and belief always manifests itself behaviour. So it is here.

The contrast: a difference demanded and a difference defined

The Lord makes it very clear that the children of Israel were to live counter-culturally, both with reference to where they had come from as well as where they were headed. Contrary to the advice of the Bangles, the children of Israel were not permitted to walk like an Egyptian. And neither were they permitted to walk like a Canaanite. Their walk and their ways were to be different. Such a difference was divinely demanded.

It should be noted that every kingdom has accepted practices and customs; every kingdom has a standard to determine what is acceptable living and what is not acceptable living. Such was true both of the Egyptians and the Canaanites. We find this principle highlighted in v. 3: “nor shall you walk in their ordinances.” The word translated “ordinances” means “that which is established or defined,” with a secondary meaning of “a practice” or “custom.” Harrison comments, “The word haqqim (‘statutes’) comes from a root ‘to engrave,’ thus describing permanent behavioural rules prescribed by authority and recorded for the instruction and guidance of the individual or society.”11 Applying this definition here means that these pagan peoples had institutionalised the sexual deviancy enumerated in the rest of the chapter. God would have none of this for His people. He demanded that they follow His order for sexuality as revealed and engraved at creation.

In v. 4 God demands that the children of Israel “observe [keep, obey] His judgements.” The word refers to a judicial decision rendered by a judge. In this case, the judge was God. The ESV helpfully translates this word as “rules.” The children of Israel were now to live by God’s rules rather than by the world’s rules. That would make them obviously different; and such a difference would make them despised. After all, when your order confronts what is otherwise considered ordinary, then expect some relational disorder.

The Word of God makes you different. John 17:14-17 makes this very clear. The Word makes you different and this can even be dangerous.

Thomas Watson said it well, “The Scripture is the library of the Holy Spirit; . . . The Scripture contains the credenda, ‘the things which we are to believe,’ and the agenda, ‘the things which we are to practice.’”12 And it is precisely because of our credenda agenda that we are revealed to be different and, to many, even dangerous. In fact we should be. Our credenda and our agenda are a light, which is a threat to Satan’s darkness.

Their conduct: a difference demonstrated

The key word for our purposes here is found in v. 4, and is the word “walk.” The Lord tells His people to “observe My rules and keep My statutes to walk in them.” That is, they were to pay such close attention to God’s law, to His Word, that they would actually practice them. In the words of James, they were to be both hearers and doers of the Word.

The Bible often pictures the believer’s relationship with the Lord as a journey, and of course this had been forever immortalised in the famed Pilgrim’s Progress. We are on a long walk to glory, and we need to pay heed how we walk. The only way to get this right is to observe and to keep God’s rules and statutes. No doubt, this is why the longest chapter in the Bible (Psalm 119) mentions the Word of God in nearly every one of its 176 verses. And this is also why the first Psalm focuses on God’s Word as the key to spiritual growth and to living a life pleasing to the Lord.

Those who delight in the law of the Lord (Psalm 19:2), and who therefore are determined to walk in the law of the Lord (Psalm 119:1), will demonstrate the difference that God’s rules make in their life. And this is not only countercultural in the world, but is also, sadly, countercultural in much of the church.

We need to park here for a moment to reflect on the relevance of the entirety of Scripture for the new covenant believer.

C. S. Lewis once stated that “a sacred book rejected is like a king dethroned.”13 That quotation is very relevant for much of the church of our day. The Old Testament has been rejected by most with the result that King Jesus is often dethroned from ordering our lives. You see, He believed in that old book. He believed in passages such as Leviticus 18. And so did Paul (see 2 Timothy 3:14-17; 4:1ff). Therefore, should we.

It is to be lamented that many professing believers would treat Leviticus 18 in almost the same fashion as does Ian McKellan. “In a Q&A with Details magazine, the openly gay ‘Lord of the Rings’ star admits to a habit of tearing out the Bible passage that condemns homosexuality—Leviticus 18:22—every time he finds one in his hotel room. The passage: “Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.”

I’m not proudly defacing the book,” he asserts, “but it’s a choice between removing that page and throwing away the whole Bible.”

McKellan, in an interview that I watched, calls such passages, “obscene and pornographic” and therefore not very “comforting for someone who is alone in a hotel room.”14

One person who commented on this article wrote very insightfully, “Sir Ian might be interested to know that whenever I watch any of the Lord of the Rings movies, I always skip the credits, but it doesn’t change what’s in the movie.” And neither does ripping out Leviticus 18 change that which has been forever settled in heaven (Psalm 119:89)!

According to the apostle Paul (in 2 Timothy 3), the new covenant believer is responsible to submit to the sufficiency of Scripture; that is, the sufficiency of all Scripture.

New covenant relevance?

Our studies in Leviticus are not merely a nostalgic look at what the old covenant church was expected to do. Rather, we are to learn these truths so that we might apply and live them; that we might “walk in them.” God demands that we live differently than the surrounding culture (until, of course, the culture becomes Christian) and defines what that difference looks like by His law. We need to take this seriously. We need to have the attitude of the psalmist—“I will delight myself in Your statutes; I will not forget your Word” (Psalm 119:16)—and our motivation needs to be, “Blessed are the undefiled in the way who walk in the law of the Lord” (v. 1).

I once heard a theologian say that the problem with the world is the church. His point was that, until God’s chosen people begin to take His Word seriously, we will be of little help to the world and therefore will offer little real hope. There is much truth in that. I am convinced that one of the keys to our being salt and light is to have the same conviction about the law of God as did (and as does) the Lord Jesus Christ (see Matthew 5:17-20).

In reality this is precisely what the new covenant church of our day needs: conviction about sola Scriptura and tota Scriptura; that is, the totality of Scripture is sufficient. As Sproul puts it, “The issue that we face in our day is not merely the question of sola Scriptura but also the question of tota Scriptura, which has to do with embracing the whole counsel of God as it is revealed in the entirety of sacred Scripture.”15

I recently read a news item in World magazine, which reported that “a court ruling in Britain said Christians couldn’t refuse to work on Sundays because remembering the Sabbath is not a ‘core component’ of Christian teaching. . . . The case is causing consternation in religious circles in England because it essentially means the courts are now in a position of deciding what doctrines are ‘core’ and which doctrines are not.”16

I almost hate to say this, but I must: There is no need to blame the courts for this; instead, we ought to blame the church. After all, for 150 years much of the church has denied the validity of the fourth commandment. The courts are simply taking their cue from us.

My appeal is that if we will live life to the full then we must return to all of Scripture as our authority. I am well aware that there are different applications of the law of God in our day, at least in some cases. Specifically, those old covenant rituals and laws which have been fulfilled in Christ, and therefore clearly abrogated under the new covenant, are not obligatory for us (e.g. the dietary laws, the Day of Atonement, etc.). However, passages such as the one we are studying today are completely relevant to us. We refuse to acknowledge this both to our shame and to our own impotence in discipling the nations.

Sadly, Israel failed in her loyalty to her Lord. Second Kings 17:7-8 reveals, “For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land Egypt . . . and they had feared other gods, and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the Lord had cast out before the children of Israel.” The result was captivity. I fear that today the church is also captive due to our neglecting of the whole counsel of God. Church, we need a Psalm 119 conviction.

Conviction and our Children

Such a conviction will yield much fruit, part of which will be an unshakeable commitment to giving our children a Christian education. Of course, I don’t mean the old Model C kind of education. I mean one in which the Word of God is given more than lip service as it is embraced as the final and all sufficient authority for the developing of a God-centred, Christ-besotted, nation-impacting worldview. Such conviction and countercultural conduct will usher in much conflict. But God’s law Word will empower us to have even greater conviction for His glory and for our children’s good. Fathers, let us follow orders to arise.

We are Rewarded for Following God’s Orders

The second major principle that we glean from this text is that we are rewarded for following God’s orders. “You shall therefore keep My statutes and My judgements, which if a man does, he shall live by them: I am the Lord” (v. 5).

Life is offered for following orders

An orderly life is the reward for following orders. And an ordered life is an abundant life. This verse brings our present study to a close. But it is the hinge of all that has been and yet will be said. It is here where the promise of abundant living is revealed.

Consider these words once again: “It should really come as no surprise that the God who made us knows better than we ourselves know how we should function in his world. It should not surprise us that obeying the maker’s instructions is likely to bring the best out of us and lead us to live life to the fullest.”17

In v. 5, we are told in no uncertain terms that, if a person obeys God’s statutes and rules, he will live by them. And the certainty of this is underscored by God’s signature: “I am the LORD.”

What does it mean “he will live by them”? The word translated “live” might be defined as “enjoying life under God’s pleasure.” For example, Deuteronomy 4:1 and 8:1 describe “live” in terms of possessing the Promised Land.

Nehemiah 9:29 defines the word in terms of obedience to God’s law (see also Ezekiel 20:11, 13, 21). Currid captures the meaning well when he writes, “The Torah is the rule of life for the Hebrew, and if he keeps it he will receive God’s blessing of an abundant and fulfilled life.”18

This verse does not teach salvation (grace) by works, but rather indicates that life flows from grace. After all, as Rooker points out, “The Israelites already have a relationship with God; they are not called to obey in order to enter or initiate this relationship.”19

The Lord obligates Himself to those following orders

Both this verse and the prologue end with God’s signature, as it were. “I am the LORD” is God’s guarantee of what He has revealed. He is the Lord God, who does not change. God cannot lie. When He makes a promise, He keeps it. So it is here. Those who keep God’s statutes and ordinances will be given life.

In the immediate context, as we have seen, if God’s laws regarding marriage and family life are obeyed then one can expect God’s blessings. They will “live,” not only by bread, but by God’s Word as well. But this verse also raises a problem—a huge problem—in that we can assume the LORD will also keep the other side of the equation. If we do not obey His statutes and ordinances then we can expect the opposite of life; that is, we can expect death. We can expect God’s judgement. If we do not follow God’s orders then we will die. In fact, God is obligated, by His own character, to do so. After all, He is the one who mandated, the penalty for sin (Ezekiel 18:20).

God is the one who told Adam that, if he disobeyed God’s order concerning the tree in the middle of the Garden, he would die. Adam did not follow God’s order and death came upon Adam and upon all men (Romans 5:12).

Some in the early church (both the old covenant and the new covenant church) mistakenly interpreted this particular verse as a promise that one could be saved by keeping the law of God. That, of course, was never the case or the intention.

As Paul wrote, no one can be justified by works (Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16). It is an impossible task to fully keep the law of God. It is impossible for fallen sinners to completely and fully follow orders. You might be able to externally obey laws such as those recorded in Leviticus 18, but what about lust in your heart? What about the impossibility of keeping the law of God perfectly in spirit? This is serious. Though life is offered for following orders, nevertheless we are lost because we do not follow orders. Is there any hope? In fact there is, for this law was a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ (Galatians 3:24).

Life is offered if you have not followed orders

If we will fully appreciate this verse then we need to grasp that it confronts us with a problem. And the problem is our sin.

Because we are sinners, because we are fallen from the perfect image of God, we do not follow orders. We are therefore in serious trouble. And yet the gospel is God’s appointed means to give us life. And this is all because the Lord Jesus Christ did follow His orders.

Jesus of Nazareth, the God-man earned God’s favour. He perfectly kept all of His statutes and judgements. And therefore, because God is faithful to His Word, Jesus was given life. This is the good news of His resurrection!

When the Lord Jesus Christ died on the cross He paid the penalty for all who have failed to keep God’s law and who become miserably aware of it. Some of Jesus’ last words were, “It is finished” (John 19:30). This was His claim that He had successfully satisfied the just wrath of God against those who had failed to follow orders.

The resurrection was the Father’s public declaration that indeed, Jesus, had finished this work because He could, and actually did, do so. That is, because Jesus perfectly followed God’s orders, His death on the cross for believing sinners was fully accepted. This is the message, the good news, of the resurrection.

Jesus earned such life—so abundantly—that He is able to share that life with sinners who have come to confess that they fail to follow orders. And when they see that He is their only hope, calling upon His name for merciful forgiveness, then He gives to them life—abundant life (John 10:10).

Those who have been recipients of God’s abundant saving grace through His Son are given abundant life. That is, among other realities, they are enabled to follow orders. They are empowered to keep His statutes and judgements. More than that, they desire to do so.

If we will live abundantly then we must be loyal to the Lord. This is the message of our Lord, both here in Leviticus and in John 10:10ff. In that chapter, the emphasis is upon the Lord’s relationship with His sheep and His great love for them in laying down His life for them. We read there these words: “My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me” (John 10:27; see also v. 4).

The sheep whom the Shepherd came to save are loyal to the voice of the Shepherd. They, in other Johanine terminology, abide in Him, and therefore His Word abides in them (see John 15:1-10; see also 8:31-32). They, like the children of Israel in Leviticus 18, are exhorted to be loyal to their Lord.

Believer, may 2013 be a year in which, as never before, you strive to fulfil your responsibility to follow orders; and may you know, as never before, the joy of the reward for following orders: abundant life.

Show 19 footnotes

  1. Derek Tidball, The Message of Leviticus: Free to Be Holy (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 2005), 219.
  2. Rousas John Rushdoony, Leviticus: Commentaries on the Pentateuch (Vallecito: Ross House Books, 2005), 183.
  3. Robert I. Vasholz, Leviticus: A Mentor Commentary (Ross-shire: Mentor, 2007), 210.
  4. Mark F. Rooker, Leviticus: The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 239.
  5. Gordon J. Wenham, Leviticus: The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 252.
  6. Allen P. Ross, Holiness to the Lord: A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002), 339-40.
  7. Tidball, The Message of Leviticus, 217.
  8. Ross, Holiness to the Lord, 339.
  9. News24, “Church of England to allow gay bishops,”, retrieved 6 January 2013.
  10. CNS News, “Piers Morgan: ‘It’s Time For an Amendment to the Bible,”, retrieved 6 January 2013.
  11. R. K. Harrison, Leviticus: Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1980), 184-85.
  12. Thomas Watson, “How We May Read the Scriptures with Most Spiritual Profit,”, retrieved 6 January 2013.
  13. C. S. Lewis, Selected Literary Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 144.
  14. Gay Christian Movement Watch, “Actor rips anti-homosexuality pages out of the bible,”, retrieved 6 January 2013.
  15. R. C. Sproul, “Tota Scriptura,”, retrieved 6 January 2013.
  16. Warren Cole Smith, “Signs and Wonders: Lady Gaga counsels, U.S. growth, Times minority report, Sabbath in Britain,”, retrieved 6 January 2013.
  17. Tidball, The Message of Leviticus, 219.
  18. John D. Currid, Study Commentary on Leviticus (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2004), 238.
  19. Rooker, Leviticus, 241.