Faith Seeing (Hebrews 11:27)

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It has been said that the life of Moses can be summarised into three phases: In his first forty years, he thought he was somebody; he spent the next forty years learning he was nobody; and he spent the remaining years of his life appreciating that the Lord can use anybody. There is no doubt a lot of truth in this. But related to this is his defining characteristic: He lived by faith. Moses was, in the true sense of the word, faithful. He is set before this epistle’s recipients, as well as before us, as an example worthy of emulation. Moses believed God’s Word concerning Christ. The author to the Hebrews exhorts his readers, and us, to likewise believe. Moses’ example had particular relevance to what these early Christians were experiencing. They too faced an evil empire. But, by faith, they would endure if, like Moses, they kept “seeing Him who is invisible.”

Though, of course, there are many circumstances unique to the life of Moses, the episode that we will look at in this study is one to which I am pretty sure we can all relate. Moses experienced forty years of waiting to accomplish what he had been called to do. The commencement of his commission would be a long time off. Yet he steadfastly waited on the Lord because, by faith, he lived seeing the Lord.

Christians await the final consummation of the kingdom. We can learn from Moses how to do so faithfully.

As we study v. 27, I trust that we will take encouragement by the revelation that, though the life of faith can at times be confusing to our sensibilities, nevertheless we can persevere as we learn to see Him who is invisible.

Why do we experience intense spiritual warfare when we have the promise of glory? Why do we yet await the salvation of our children, even though we are intentionally raising them in the faith? Why do things fall apart after we are converted? Why do frustrations and opposition attend our obedience to God in our ministry? We may struggle with these questions, but we learn from the life of Moses that

faith is not whistling in the dark, looking for a silver lining or a happy feeling. It is neither make-believe nor virtual reality, but it is courageous. It faces reality, grim reality at times, before obtaining promises; when it will be more than vindicated.1

And so it is essential that, like Moses, we remain steadfast in the faith, which requires that we see by faith. You see, saving faith is, in the end, also seeing faith. May God open our eyes to see today.

We will examine “faith seeing” under two broad headings.

The Progress of Faith Seeing

If we will “see the invisible” as Moses did then perhaps we should examine some stages in the development of Moses’ faith. Of course, saving faith is the gift of God, but we are called to be stewards of this faith.

Indoctrination

Moses’ faith started with the faith of his parents, who, by faith, his him for three months when he was born, despite the command of the king (v. 23).

In v. 27, we see Moses responding to the all-powerful pharaoh the same way that his parents did: by faith, and therefore without fear (even though he feared)!

Winston Churchill said, “You will find that, in almost all cases, extraordinary men had unhappy childhoods.” That was probably not the case with Moses. As we have been reminded, Moses was raised by his mother Jochebed until he was weaned. She and Amram, her husband, knew their time was limited, so how zealous they must have been to indoctrinate Moses with all they could about God and His redemptive covenant—and that he himself was a crucial part of this, for “he was no ordinary child” (Acts 7:20, NIV). Their faith (v. 23) became his faith. They no doubt did not waste a moment to instil in their son a vision of the glory of God. And so “Moses learned faith the old fashioned way, from his parents.”2

Moses’ parents saw God’s purpose for their son. You can be sure that they did all they could to ensure that he would come to the personal realisation of this as well. And he did.

Parents, raise your children to see God in this world—in every part of this world. Raise them with intentionality and with intensity to know the Lord. Raise them to see spiritual realities. Raise them to be saved, not merely to come to church. Treat your children as extraordinary objects of God’s grace.

To raise them intentionally for Christ, God talk needs to become everyday talk. The words of Scripture need to be our reality:

Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one! You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your strength.

And these words which I command you today shall be in your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, when you walk by the way, when you lie down, and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.

(Deuteronomy 6:4–9)

Parents, if your children will see then you must see. Don’t be like the Pharisees, whom Jesus characterised as the blind leading the blind. Moses’ parents saw beyond the observable; they saw their son through the promise of the gospel.

Identification

According to vv. 24–26, Moses came to the realisation of his ultimate identification. He belonged to God and therefore he belonged to the people of God. His identification called for a separation from his cultural identity unto his spiritual identity. At the end of the day, this is the only identity that matters.

Restless

For four decades Moses lived in the palace of Pharaoh with a growing sense that he did not belong there. He began to identify more and more with the reality that he had a special covenantal, spiritual connection with the Jews. They were the people of God, and he knew that he belonged to them, because he realised that he belonged to their God!

This gnawing and restless sense that God had another purpose for him had now come to the surface. “Eureka! I have found my calling!” We might even say that it was at that point that Moses “found Christ”; more to the point, the Good Shepherd had found him. Moses was ready to take on the world with a new Christ-centred devotion and passionate affection. No one or nothing would stop him now. The kingdom of God would advance!

He had evaluated what the Egyptian court offered him, but they had no real comparison to the riches of Christ. He therefore refused to be identified as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter. The treasure he had found in Christ made it very easy to turn away from the passing pleasures of sin.

More than a Visit

At some point, Moses heard the clear call from God for him to leave the palace and join the people (see Exodus 2:11).

This verse means more than that Moses decided to take a walk. Note what Acts 7:23 says: “Now when he was forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren, the children of Israel.” What specifically was put “into his heart,” and who do you suppose it was that put it into his heart? God put it into his heart, but what was put there? The word translated “to visit” is the Greek word episkapeo. It means “to bishop.” It carries the idea of giving oversight to others. It is the word that is applied to spiritual leaders (1 Timothy 3:1). God’s call had come for Moses to become a bishop. Moses was being called to lead the people of God. Because God looked at and visited His people, Moses was led to do so.

Corporate Identity

When God graciously made Moses aware of his identity, he was quite willing to identify with the invisible God in a most practical way: He identified with the people of God who were very visible! To know the one is to know the other. The one identity is inseparable to the other. So it is with the Christian. Our identity with Christ is inseparable from our identity with God’s people.

Being connected to the community of faith is non-negotiable if you will taste and see that the Lord is good. Lone rangers, despite of their theological knowledge, are still blind as a bat. God designed the church to wear spiritual spectacles together (Hebrews 10:24–25). We would do well to embrace the philosophy, rightly understood, that the church rules. The local church is a visible manifestation of the rule of Jesus Christ. Those who refuse to obey His rules as stewarded by the church’s rule, have no reason to think that they are under the glad rule of Christ.

I was privileged to be raised in a godly home, though I’m not sure when I was actually converted. My high school years were hardly characteristic of faith in Christ, but I can still remember sitting in church and, even though I didn’t always listen as I should have, feeling that I somehow belonged there. I felt somehow uneasy in the world, but a definite sense of identity with the church.

What is hindering you from identifying? It is unbelief. Do you hear the call of the kingdom? Then stop ignoring it and answer it—now!

According to Romans 6, when Jesus was crucified all for whom He died also died with Him, and were buried with Him, and rose from the dead in Him. Conversion is the word that we might use to describe the realisation that we are one with Him!

None will be left behind! As Jesus said, “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out” (John 6:37).

Separation

Moses’ identification with the people of God meant, of course, a separation from his former life. He counted the cost and his decision was firm: He chose to “rather to suffer affliction with the people of God rather to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin.” He had perhaps sensed all his life that he did not really belong in the palace. Though a palace life for his forefather Joseph was completely justifiable and in sync with God’s plan, that life was not for Moses.

All things considered, the reproach of Christ is of much more value than anything that the world can offer. Moses exercised a righteous evaluation, and the result was true riches. He had every reason to trust God for His promised reward. Redemption and regeneration were his expectation. It is the same for all who live by faith.

Unity of Purpose without Uniformity of Particulars

Our creative God works uniquely in the lives of His children. Not all costs of faith are the same. For example, Joseph was called to live by faith in the palace, while Moses was called to forsake the palace. We can learn from this that God’s principles never change but the particulars of living those principles out will vary from person to person.

Some will be called to give up their wealth (like the rich young ruler) and others not (Like Zacchaeus). Some will need to give up some relationships and practices while others will not—just as Paul was called to give up the privilege of marriage, while Peter was not. There are also issues of conscience, like alcohol, music, etc. in which different believers will respond differently. We are called to walk as God leads us, not necessarily as God leads someone else.

Implementation

Verse 27 brings us to our actual text and shows the implementation of Moses’ faithful decisions.

A Call and Commitment without a Commission

In v. 27 we read of an essential action, which must always accompany the choice to identify with Christ: Moses, having decided, needed to carry out his decision. Implementation is essential if our expectation will be realised. The implementation, however, begins with a bit of a snag—in fact, a pretty big one.

Moses, with a newfound realisation and appreciation of his true identification, no doubt assumed that the Hebrews would recognise his call to be their leader. He assumed that what he saw so clearly would be clearly seen by them. He was in for a steep learning curve! He was about to experience a crisis of faith. And he would conquer the crisis by faith. The historical record can be found in Exodus 2:

Now it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out to his brethren and looked at their burdens. And he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his brethren. So he looked this way and that way, and when he saw no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. And when he went out the second day, behold, two Hebrew men were fighting, and he said to the one who did the wrong, “Why are you striking your companion?”

Then he said, “Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you intend to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?”

So Moses feared and said, “Surely this thing is known!” When Pharaoh heard of this matter, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh and dwelt in the land of Midian; and he sat down by a well.

(Exodus 2:11–15)

Anyone for an Exodus?

As Moses came to the realisation of his identification, he did something about it. He visited his oppressed brethren to say, as it were, “My true brothers and sisters, I am her, and we are outta here!” But, as Stephen tells us, his zeal was not appreciated. “For he supposed that his brethren would have understood that God would deliver them by his hand, but they did not understand” (Acts 7:25).

Moses was about to discover that, though his calling was sure, the timing was not right. He was now known as a murderer among the Egyptians. The people were not yet ready to follow. And without a people prepared to exit, you can’t have an exodus!

So, What Now?

Have you ever been in a similar position? Perhaps when you were first converted you were zealous to witness and had assumptions that everybody else would be as excited, convinced and then converted as you were. But you soon learned that they were not, in fact, excited about your faith, not convinced about the gospel, and not remotely interested in being converted.

Or perhaps you hear God’s call for a certain direction in your life and yet soon discover that things are not going as you planned them. In fact, according to your plans, things are behind schedule. You desire to implement, but God is not in as big a hurry as you are!

Well, if you can relate then there are some helpful lessons for us. But for that we need to dig deeper into v. 27.

The Preparation through Faith Seeing

Moses’ faith was going to be further proven as he faithfully faced a crisis. This was necessary to prepare him for greater things.

In his own recollection of events, “Moses feared and said, ‘Surely this thing is known’” (Exodus 2:14). He had legitimate reason to be afraid. The fact that the “thing” was “known” meant that he was a wanted man. He was rightly afraid of the intentions of Pharaoh (Exodus 2:15). It was time to leave town.

It is at this point that we need to pause to understand what the writer is and is not saying.

Fearful or Faithful? Or Both?

Verse 27 says, “By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king. Moses “forsook Egypt” on two occasions: first, when he fled to Midian, and second, when he led the children of Israel in the Exodus. So which instance is referred to here? Or is it perhaps inclusive of both?

Consider the second possibility. Many hold to this interpretation because, in relation to the first instance of leaving Egypt, fear was involved (Exodus 2:14), but v. 27 specifically says that Moses did not fear the wrath of the king. That seems to contradict the account in Exodus 2:14. Therefore, the conclusion of many is that this verse must refer to the exodus.

But there are some objections to this interpretation.

When Moses eventually led the children of Israel out of Egypt there was no reason for him to fear the king. After all, as prophesied, the people, along with Pharaoh, actually begged them to leave. So if this verse is referring to the Exodus then the mention of the “fear of the king” has no real connection.

Second, to say that Moses “forsook” Egypt is strange language to describe the Exodus. The idea inherent in the word “forsook” is that of reluctance, of a cost involved. It can imply that something valuable is left behind. But at the point of the exodus, there was really nothing to forsake. When Moses led the exodus, the Israelites were leaving a ruined land and were heading for freedom. The plagues had devastated the nation economically, agriculturally and, to a major extent, politically.

Third, the context of this verse is a major argument against an exodus interpretation. Hebrews 11 gives a faithful and accurate chronological record of those Old Testament saints who believed on Christ. Therefore, to insert the exodus before the Passover (v. 28) would be very out of character for the entire chapter, and especially so in the account of Moses. In v. 23 we have the record of Moses’ faithful parents. Then, in vv. 24–26, we have the record of Moses after he turns forty. To go straight to the last phase of his life, beginning with the Exodus, when he was eighty, would be to bypass his life-transforming forty-year sojourn in Midian. Those forty years were as crucial to Moses living by faith as any other period in his life. They were a crucial crucible.

I suppose it might also be argued that this verse is a summary of what follows. In other words, Moses, by faith, led the exodus by keeping the Passover and then by crossing the Red Sea. And he endured this ordeal by seeing Him who is invisible. But, again, it would be strange that this crucial account would not be mentioned. It is possible, but unlikely.

Having noted these other possibilities, I am persuaded that v. 27 speaks of Moses “by faith” leaving Egypt and going to Midian. That was an act of faith, not of fear. And the very mention of “not fearing the king” gives weight to this.

In fact, I would argue that this Midian episode was particularly important and relevant for these first century Hebrew Christians. They may have been tempted to argue, that Moses’ faith was not so commendable after all. Did he not fearfully flee to Midian? For the writer to ignore this episode may have looked suspiciously like special pleading. They needed encouragement, not an excuse. For, you see, they also were in a crucible. So the writer uses this episode to encourage them in their faith. Listen to how Richard Phillips explains,

Given the importance of Moses’ faith to the overall argument of this letter, the writer would seek to explain the statement of Moses’ fear in Exodus 2:14.Yes, the Exodus account says Moses was afraid, but, he clarifies, we should not think it was fear of Pharaoh; his leaving then was by faith, since he knew that God had called him to deliver the people. True, Moses’ abortive attempt to free the people had failed; and yes, Moses became afraid, but his faith in God overcame his fear and he left to await the Lord.3

Or as Morris comments, “While his fear was real, his flight appears to have been because he did not think it was God’s time for action, or, as the writer of Hebrews put it, he went out ‘by faith.’”4 In fact, the NEB outs it this way: “By faith he left Egypt, and not because he feared the king’s anger.”

Let me paraphrase what the writer is saying:

Moses, though he feared the king, went to Midian motivated by faith. His faith was stronger than his fear. Fear may have moved him initially, but faith maintained him inevitably. He was willing to go to Midian and to endure a forty-year wait because he really saw Him who is invisible.

Fear and Faith

Fleeing does not mean faithlessness. It may, in fact, be an act of faith.

When Moses left Egypt for Midian, he was, in a sense, saying: “Yes, I understand the danger that I am in presently. So I will leave.” But, like General Douglas MacArthur to those in the Philippines when the US forces were routed by the Japanese, Moses was saying, in God’s timing, “I will return.”

So yes, Moses did fear the king, but he feared the King more. And the King was telling him to wait. The time was not yet right for the Exodus. And so, for forty years, Moses waited on the Lord for His timing.

Sometimes, it requires faith to walk away. As Peake long ago commented, “For it was harder to live for his people than it was to die for them.” Brown adds, “When his people were I such desperate trouble, it required endurance to stay in Midian.”5

Fear Moved Him but Faith Maintained Him

People sometimes make superficial statements that become accepted principles. One of those is that fear and faith cannot co-exist. That is false. In fact, the reason that faith at times looks so remarkable is precisely because of the very real presence of fear. So it was with Moses.

So it was with the wise men, and with Joseph and Mary (see Matthew 2:12, 13–15, 19–23). They had every reason to fear for Jesus’ life if Herod found Him, and so their faith in protecting Him looks all the more remarkable.

So it was when Peter, James and John left their nets to follow Jesus. So it was when Isaiah answered the call to be sent by Yahweh. So it was when Rahab hid the spies. So it was when Joshua was called by God to step into Moses’ sandals. So it is when you decided to follow Jesus. There was perhaps fear of the unknown, but by faith you followed in the face of a hostile visible because of a vision of the invisible. This is what our author is trying to get his readers to see.

Yes, there are real reasons to fear. But there is a greater reason to believe.

But how do we persevere?

The Delight of Illumination

.Preparation through perseverance requires illumination.

Moses left, believing God for a glorious future. But it would be another forty years before that future would dawn. Still, for forty years, he endured a hard and humbling existence by “seeing Him who is invisible.” That is precisely how you and I will endure: by faith. By faith, our ears will turn into eyes. As we hear God’s promises, as we hear God’s gospel, we will persevere to the end. We may be legitimately concerned, but we can still respond with biblical confidence.

Moses’ perseverance was because he lived “as seeing Him who is invisible.” God graciously enabled him to have his ears turned into eyes. And how we need the same!

It was by faith that Moses went into Midian. And that faith was empowered by seeing the invisible God. Literally, “he kept seeing continually.” Lane says, “It was the fact that Moses kept the invisible God continually before him that explains how he succeeded in overcoming his fear through faith.”6

Moses endured, but the emphasis needs to be on the right “syllable.” That is, he endured because he maintained “a fixed habit of spiritual perception. Moses’ departure was an act of faith motivated by the vision of God.”7

The word translated “endured” is a rare one in the New Testament, and it means “steadfast.” By faith, Moses was able to vasbyt as his faith connected him to God and enabled him to see Him. Because of his vision of God, he vasbyt for God. Vision and vasbyt go together like biltong and toothpicks!

Though he was temporarily hindered from doing what God called him to do, nevertheless, by faith, he still expected to eventually do it. He believed that, one day, the people would have a change of heart precisely because God had already said that they would (Genesis 15:13–14).

The Extraordinary as Ordinary

Hughes comments, “I personally believe that seeing ‘him who is invisible’ is not extraordinary. Rather, it is ordinary, normal Christianity. In fact, if you do not see the unseen, you are abnormal and below the divinely ordained norm.”8 So, how is sight? This is the life to which we are divinely called.

Such spiritual vision is actually the expectation for every Christian. Note the words of Paul to the Corinthians:

For it is the God who commanded light to shine out of darkness, who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellence of the power may be of God and not of us. We are hard-pressed on every side, yet not crushed; we are perplexed, but not in despair.

(2 Corinthians 4:6–8)

The Need for Improvement

Moses’ time in Midian prepared him. It humbled him (see Exodus 3–4), which is always the first fruit of saving faith. He would need this humility if he would be a strong and faithful leader.

Think of it this way: Moses had left Egypt, but he needed Egypt out of him. The temptation to arrogance, personal power and self-sufficiency needed to be removed. Moses needed to become acquainted with God’s method of power: The weak is the new strong and the poor is the new rich.

Forty years as an insignificant shepherd on the backside of a desert was just what Moses need to prepare him for the great task that lay ahead. You see, he needed to learn that he did not have to be great for this task; he needed to see that God is great. His vision of God needed to be strengthened. He needed more time to learn that God’s ways were not necessarily his ways. The battle was not against flesh and blood, but rather against spiritual wickedness in high places. He needed forty years of illumination to know how to fulfil his calling to the glory of God.

He needed to learn that there can be no confusion over who secures the victory. John Calvin pastorally comments,

We hence learn, that the true character of faith is to set God always before our eyes; secondly, that faith beholds higher and more hidden things in God than what our senses can perceive; and, thirdly, that a view of God alone is sufficient to strengthen our weakness, so that we may become firmer than rocks to withstand all the assaults of Satan.9

An Applicable Aside

This account would have been good news to beleaguered first century Christians. They too would face the wrath of King Nero. They would face the sword of General Titus. They too would be forced to flee their homeland. But they were to be driven, not by fear, but by faith—a faith-conditioned fear.

In Matthew 24:4–14, Jesus told His disciples of the signs that would precede the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. He then warned them in vv. 15–16 to flee to the mountains when they saw these signs. Driven by faith, that is exactly what the Jerusalem Christians did. There is no account in the history books of a single Christian being killed in the destruction of Jerusalem. Why? Because they faithfully obeyed God and fled in fear when they saw Christ’s words come to pass.

Interestingly, Revelation 7 records the fruit of their fearful faith: a great number of converts that could not be numbered.

These readers needed, like Moses, to endure until the end of the Jewish War, and their faith would be rewarded. They needed to keep before them the illuminating promise of the gospel. The new covenant church would be well on its way to world dominion. We too need such faith.

The Need for Instruction

So, how do we get this vision? We need the instruction of God’s Word. We therefore need to listen.

Timothy Quill says with reference to spiritual vision that “we live in a time of hearing, not seeing…. Faith comes through the ears not the eyes.” He then rather graphically and hyperbolically emphasises this when he writes, “If we want to see God at work, we need to gouge our eyes and put them in our ears.” Perhaps less graphically, but no less accurately, Phillips says, “The man or woman of frequent communion with God in prayer and in his Word will see his face in the midst of the fight, thereby finding courage and a strong incentive to faith.”10 To illustrate this, he quotes the example of the great seventeenth century John Knox who, when asked if he was afraid of the infamous and notorious Bloody Mary, said, “One does not fear the Queen of Scotland when he has been on his knees before the King of Kings.” Well said!

Daniel and his friends were wonderful examples of this principle. They feared God above the ruthless human Kings under whose reigns they served. Paul exemplified this faith before various religious and civil leaders, and, on more than one occasion, before angry mobs. Jesus wonderfully displayed this type of faith before Herod, Pilate, the Sanhedrin, and an angry crowd.

Because these men, and countless others besides, paid attention to God’s Word, they were able to see. We too need to pay attention.

Essential Exposure

Preaching plays a central role in all of this. We need to hear precise, prepared preaching if we will develop this kind of faith in God. At the same time, we need to participate as we listen to preaching. We need to be committed to intentional listening. We must hear the Word of the Lord!

John Piper has written,

The authenticating, inner essence of worship is being satisfied with Christ, prizing Christ, cherishing Christ, treasuring Christ.… [This] is tremendously relevant for understanding what worship services should be about. They are about “going hard after God.” When we say that what we do on Sunday mornings is to “go hard after God,” what we mean is that we are going hard after satisfaction in God, and going hard after God as our prize, and going hard after God as our treasure, our soul-food, our heart-delight, our spirit’s pleasure. Or to put Christ in His rightful place—it means that we are going hard after all that God is for us in Jesus Christ, crucified and risen.11

At the same time, we need to deliberately meditate on and interact with God’s Word. We need to frequently spend time privately in the Word.

We must be convinced that “God is there and He is not silent” (Hebrews 1:1–2).

We must be persuaded about inspiration, and we must plead for illumination as we submit to God’s instructions. But this will get us nowhere if we do not persevere in our implementation.

Conclusion

When Moses eventually confronted Egypt’s new pharaoh, he saw a much larger figure dwarfing the new king. Many saw a god; Moses saw God. What are you looking at?

Moses forsook Egypt, abandoning what he needed to in order to answer the call of the kingdom. Humanly speaking, we are the beneficiaries of his commitment.

Moses was fearlessly faithful. And he was fearless precisely because he was focused. He saw “Him who is invisible” and, in a very real sense, this made him invincible.

May God give us ears to hear, hearts to understand and eyes to see Him in His glory. One day, our faith will be actual sight. Until then, faithfully vasbyt. The result will be faith seeing.

AMEN

Show 11 footnotes

  1. Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 135.
  2. Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), ??.
  3. Phillips, Hebrews, ??.
  4. Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:127.
  5. Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 217.
  6. William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:375.
  7. Lane, Hebrews, 2:376.
  8. R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 2:121.
  9. John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, 22 vols. (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2005), 12.1:198.
  10. Phillips, Hebrews, 508.
  11. J. Matthew Pinson, Perspectives on Christian Worship (Nashville: B&H Publishing, 2009), 121–22.