A Prayer and a Promise (Hebrews 13:20–21)

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Sometimes being confronted with exhortation upon exhortation can become less than exhilarating; in fact, it can become discouraging. For example, we hear over and over the challenges to persevere in the Christian life. And so we get back into the race and we run with our eyes fixed on Jesus. But, as in previous attempts, we may find ourselves once again losing our focus. We then hear the exhortation, respond and then fail—again. These repeated exhortations, after a while, serve more to remind us of our failures than to encourage us that we can do better. We start, in fact, to think that these exhortations are only for some special category of Christian, a category in which we do not pass the muster.

I can relate to this. I often read and finish 2­–3 books a week, most which deal with living the Christian life and/or pastoral ministry. Such a barrage of counsel can overwhelm me to the point of discouragement as I begin to question whether or not I will make progress in my own spiritual maturity, as well as questioning my effectiveness as a pastor. It is precisely at such times that I need to pay attention to the prayer and promise of Hebrews 13:20–21.

This prayer and promise comes at the close of an epistle where there are repeated exhortations to a group of believers who needed to hear such repetitive challenges to persevere. They were in a difficult situation, facing severe pressures for their profession of faith. Some had stumbled, some had begun to drift, and some had not matured as they should have (5:11–14). But as they had sat under the proclamation of this epistle, they were moved to do what is right. But the question perhaps lurking in the back of their mind was, “Can I?”

Well, this closing benediction assured them that they could. This prayer of blessing is rooted in a promise. These who have believed on the Lord Jesus Christ can, must, and will persevere in the faith.

As we examine this prayer and promise, may we too be encouraged as we follow our Saviour.

A Prayer for Salvation

Having just asked for their prayers (vv. 18–19), the author exemplifies this by praying for them. His prayer is found in v. 21, where he prays that the Lord will “make you complete in every good work to do His will, working in you what is well pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ.” He prays for their spiritual wholeness. And, as we have seen throughout this epistle, they were in need of this (5:11–13; and see other “let us” exhortations scattered throughout the epistle). They had started well; he prays that they would finish well. He was praying for their salvation. Let me explain.

A Benediction of Salvation

These closing words serve as a benediction. A benediction is the conferring of a blessing. It is meant to encourage the congregation as we embark once again on our pilgrimage. This benediction was most fitting for this congregation. It is for us as well. It was a benediction concerning their salvation.

Salvation is both a definite, once-for-all action of the declaration of justification. That is, the believing and therefore repentant sinner is declared forgiven—justified before God—and once and for all free from sins condemnation. As we saw previously, in Christ we are freed from the curse of the law.

Yet salvation is also a process of being freed from the power, practice and pleasures of sin. We call this sanctification.

Finally, salvation will be fully experienced upon our death and resurrection when we receive Christlikeness. We call this glorification. It is these latter two aspects of salvation that our writer has in mind in this benediction. We are correct, therefore, to say that this benediction is a prayer for salvation (see v. 21 and Matthew 1:21).

So, what encouragements, what foundational truths, does our author mention that will serve as a blessed assurance concerning the answering of this prayer? In other words, what encouragements can we look to in our quest to increasingly experience such a salvation? He mentions three.

God’s Shalom

The author is confident of this benediction of salvation because He is confident in the Lord of their salvation, “the God of peace” (v. 20).

The phrase “the God of peace” is ascribed to God in four other places in the New Testament (Romans 15:33; 16:20; Philippians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:23), and the relationship between God and peace is seen in many New Testament texts. Ephesians 2:14 speaks of “Christ our peace.” At least once in each of his thirteen epistles, Paul writes of “peace from God.” He writes of the “peace of God” in Philippians 4:7; Colossians 3:15). So the concept of peace is intimately connected to God’s character and to His relationship with His people. But what is meant by “peace”?

“Peace” means far more than the absence of hostilities, though this is a huge consequence of the gospel. After all, since Jesus Christ has atoned for our sins, all enmity between God and us has been removed. Thank God that, because Christ is “our peace,” there has been once and for all a removal of all hostility. We have been wonderfully reconciled to God!

Peace, however, has an even wider application and implication in that it speaks of an overall wellbeing; it speaks of wholeness and wholesomeness. This is what God has given to His people. This is the birthright of those for whom Jesus is Mediator. Brown helpfully observes that “peace in biblical thought is something far more than serenity; it denotes the quality of salvation God is able to give to his people.”1

New Covenant Significance

To a first century, faithfully orthodox Jew, perhaps nothing was more important than experiential shalom. This goes way back to the Aaronic blessing as recorded in Numbers 6:22–27:

And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying: “Speak to Aaron and his sons, saying, ‘This is the way you shall bless the children of Israel. Say to them: “The LORD bless you and keep you; the LORD make His face shine upon you, and be gracious to you; the LORD lift up His countenance upon you, and give you peace.”’ So they shall put My name on the children of Israel, and I will bless them.”

(Numbers 6:22–27)

The experience of God’s peace or shalom was to be the mark that separated the people of Israel from all other peoples. This is what God was saying in v. 27. The true people of God—the real Israel of God—was characterised by this blessing from “the God of peace.” How significant that the writer to the Hebrews should end his letter with a similar blessing! However, in this case, it was not a blessing through Aaron, a merely human high priest, but a promise of shalom is through the God-Man, the High Priest, the Lord Jesus Christ.

This very Jewish concept of shalom is unsurprisingly found here in this very Jewish book. But, of course, this matter of God’s shalom is not only for old covenant Jews; no, it is for new covenant sons of Abraham also. This is why it is found in every epistle of the New Testament.

For a Jewish audience, this reminder of God’s shalom—to and for them—would have been very welcome news. After all, they were being ostracised, having gone outside of the camp (v. 14). Perhaps some were wondering whether they were cut off from God’s shalom. Have you ever been there?

But, in fact, it was only those Jews who had embraced Jesus Christ as their once-for-all sacrifice for sins and as their eternally perpetual High Priest who in fact could experience God’s shalom. They needed to hear this; they needed to be reminded of this. And so the writer pronounces this wonderful benediction of shalom. In fact, every Christian needs to hear, embrace and experience this benediction of God’s shalom. May we all hear it and heed it.

If we will make progress in the Christian life, we must come to appreciate and experience the reality of what it means to be related to the God of peace.

We must come to see that the salvation He has provided through His Son, His appointed Mediator, His eternal High Priest whom He gave to be the once-for-all sacrifice for our sins, is all inclusive; it is whole; it is what true shalom is all about.

Clearly, the author’s fundamental point is that this God of peace, the God who is at perfect peace with Himself, is able to make us at peace with Him, with others and with ourselves. He is able to make you whole. This, in fact, is precisely what the gospel does. It makes us whole. “It is shalom with my soul” is our heart’s praise.

It is this peace that drove the apostles to stand boldly for the gospel in the face of tremendous opposition (see, for example, Acts 4:9–12, in context).

Perhaps we can summarise this by saying that this phrase means “God is for you” (Psalm 56:9). And this would have been particularly relevant for these beleaguered believers. And perhaps for some of you reading this.

Christian, God is for you—and you, and I, need to believe this. Such benedictions should be on our lips, or at least in our hearts, continually. We should remind each other of this. The God of peace will complete what He has begun. Yes, you may be facing some very tough challenges to your faith, but shalom is your inheritance.

The Experience of Shalom

Your shalom may be accompanied by sickness, unemployment, relational shambles, suffering, trauma and the like. But to know the God of peace is to be able to know the peace of God. Such an experience transforms struggles into shalom.

As mentioned, shalom is a heavily pregnant concept, which speaks of an all-around wellbeing. Such an experience of shalom is manifested in different ways; in fact, in very countercultural ways.

For instance, shalom is experienced and manifested when, waking after a kidney removal, you sing hymns and then ask the physiotherapist if you can pray for her because you have learned that she is facing some difficulty.

For others, shalom is manifested by singing praise to God, having just received a beating for faithfully following Him.

For some, it is the tranquil and serene countenance in the face of losing everything that is, in an earthly way, very dear to you.

Still others manifest their experience of God’s shalom by a disposition that refuses to fight with those who oppose them and by a willingness to suffer wrong rather than to fight for their rights; they manifest their experience of God’s shalom by a refusal to trade evil for evil.

This is the blessing, as we have seen, and as we will see, of the new covenant.

God’s Strength, v. 20b

The writer speaks of the God “who brought up our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead” (v. 20). The writer seeks to remind us of the power we need, and the power that is available. He points us to the strength for our shalom. As MacArthur notes, “To attempt to live the Christian life with the purest doctrine and the finest examples, but without God’s direct power, is to build with wood, hay, and straw. We not only need to know God’s will, we need to have His power.”2 How true.

The God of peace is the God who brought up from the dead our Lord Jesus.

This is the first and only mention of the resurrection of Jesus in this epistle. Of course, there are many places where the author assumes this, as for instance his many references to Jesus’ ascension and current intercessory ministry. But here he pointedly mentions the Lord’s resurrection, I think, because he wants to encourage his readers concerning the amazing and available power of God to “make you complete in every good work to do His will.”

Brought Up to Lead Out

The phrase “brought up” could more literally be translated, “led out.” It carries an exodus motif. Lane helpfully notes,

The “leading out” is the fundamental redemptive action of God under both the old and the new covenant. Upon it are based the exclusive claims of God to his people’s allegiance, on the one hand, and, on the other, the ground for trust in God’s power and readiness to stand by his covenant people.3

Yes Christian, you have experienced a powerful exodus. Live like it

A Covenantal Sacrifice

The verse says that God accomplished the resurrection of Jesus “through the blood of the everlasting covenant.” Jesus’ death was a covenantal sacrifice. Let me explain this causal relationship between these clauses.

The writer is saying that God raised Jesus from the dead because of the blood of the everlasting covenant. The Greek text clearly points to this. On the surface, this appears to be an odd connection. But, in fact, these clauses are inseparable, and other New Testament passages make the same connection (see, for example, 1 Timothy 3:16; but most clearly in Romans 1:1–4). The point being made is that, in response to Jesus fulfilling His side of the everlasting covenant of grace (salvation)—that is, the new covenant in His blood (Matthew 26:26–28)—the Father fulfilled His “obligation” of the covenant by raising Jesus from the dead. Andrews sums this up well: “The resurrection justifies the believing soul because it testifies to the fact that Christ’s sacrifice has been accepted by the Father…. Christ’s blood has so perfectly attained its goal that there remains no cause for him to be imprisoned by death.”4 Oh, there is so much here!

Because Jesus lived a perfect life, His shed blood covers and cleanses the sins of all those who place their faith in Him. And the proof that His once-for-all sacrifice was both sufficient and efficient is that the Father raised Him from the dead. And this assures our justification (Romans 4:25).

Triune Covenant

The Father, Son and Holy Spirit made a covenant in eternity past regarding the salvation of God’s people. The reward for Jesus’ obedience was His resurrection, along with the resurrection of all of those for whom He died.

Someone said to me recently, in relation to economics, that “those who are rewarded the most are usually those who also risk the most.” In a sense, this applies equally to the economy of salvation. Of course, there was no risk that Jesus would fail, yet when Jesus commended His spirit in death, it was the greatest example of faith ever in the universe. It displayed Jesus’ undying confidence in the Father to such a degree that Jesus would die for Him. And because the blood of Jesus was preciously sinless, the Father rewarded His Son with a glorious resurrection and the glorious resurrection of all who place their faith in Him (Isaiah 53:11–12).

Though so much could be said at this point, we want to focus on the immediate context and note that this is mentioned here to highlight the enormous power of the God of peace. If God could (and did) do that, He can (and will) do this.

Perpetuity

“The covenant statement sums up the main gist of the epistle. This is the one occasion in this epistle where the covenant is described as ‘eternal.’ There is no possibility of its becoming obsolete and another being needed.”5

Perhaps you are discouraged that, though you have experienced this power in the past, you doubt that, due to your sinful failures, you will experience it again. Be encouraged to keep believing, for our text tell us that the covenant is “everlasting,” which means that it is perpetual in its effect. Many things continue in the new covenant; resurrection power and pardon for sins are two of the major ones (see 8:7–12).

Let me put it like this: Since the blood of Jesus Christ has perpetually atoned for our sins, and therefore since Jesus ever lives to make intercession for us, we can be assured that His “salvific power” is available to “make [us] complete in every good work to do His will.” This is the promise of the Father. As Hywel Jones comments, “The God of peace is the one who makes people whole, even immature Christians, and the God who raises from death is the One who has ultimate power. Peace and power are the hallmarks of the eternal covenant.”6

Christian, preach this gospel to yourself. Preach it to those who are in the slough of despair and self-pity. “Remind” God of His promise. Immerse yourself in the gospel truth by reading solidly biblical gospel books.

God’s Shepherd

The phrase “that great Shepherd of the sheep” actually appears earlier in the text than it appears in most English translations. In some ways, this title for Jesus is the predominate thought of the verse. It is because we have such a “great Shepherd” that we know God’s shalom and God’s strength. Without our gloriously great Pastor, we would have no peace or power.

It has been noted that this phrase is a double emphasis for the purpose of encouraging the readers of the deep commitment and affection that Christ has for His flock. “The verbal redundancy is intentional and emphasises the intensely relational nature of the new covenant.”7

Perhaps there is no more tender and encouraging picture for the believer than that of the Lord as our shepherd. I recently visited a desperately ill church member in the hospital, having received word that the family had been called by the doctors to inform them that he was on his deathbed. When I saw him, I immediately realised that there was no more suitable text to read to him than Psalm 23. As this dear brother walked through the valley of the shadow of death, he needs the encouragement that Psalm 23 offers.

The concept of Christ as Shepherd would have been particularly meaningful for these believers who were undergoing great trials. They certainly needed such a tender and touching benediction, reminding them of the Lord’s provided Pastor for them. In fact, as Lane highlights, the appointment by God of His Son to “the office of ‘shepherd’ is the goal of the leading forth of Jesus from among the dead.”8 And so “Christians belong to the fold of the great shepherd because they have been bonded to him by the eternal covenant.”9 Jesus was raised from the dead so we could have a Shepherd who saves!

Our Mega Shepherd

Morris comments concerning this title that “the shepherd has absolute sovereignty over his flock (cf. Revelation 2:27; 12:5; 19:15). The adjective ‘great’ is used because Christ is not to be ranked with other shepherds. He stands out.”10

Do we realise how great our Shepherd is? Do we realise that He is a mega Shepherd? He is great in His love for us; He is great, therefore, in His commitment to us (cf. the “everlasting covenant”); He is great in His faithfulness to us (John 10:27–30); He is great in the power that He provides for us; He is great in His wisdom toward us; He is great in His promised presence to us. Yes, He is that great a Shepherd to His sheep. Is He your shepherd?

If so, then learn to know the Shepherd. If so, then learn to rest in the Shepherd. If so, then learn to follow the Shepherd. If so, then learn to stick close and to follow the Shepherd. So many of our failures are just here. We lose sight that we are sheep and that we need a Shepherd. We forget this basic, foundational truth concerning who He is

Consider the account of Peter walking on the water (Matthew 14:29–31). The text tells us that when he was distracted by the wind he began to sink. A book I was recently reading noted, “It wasn’t that Peter didn’t believe in Jesus, he did. It was that he doubted what Jesus said because he forgot who Jesus was.”11

In our case, the problem is perhaps that, while recognising that we are sheep, we look to the wrong shepherd(s). Or perhaps we refuse to come close to the Shepherd. There is no excuse for this. We have the grand and glorious privilege to walk with Him, to follow Him. Don’t pull away. This Shepherd is so great that He laid down His life for His sheep. And if God spared not this Shepherd, how will He not also freely give to us all things?

Are you sensing great pressure from family, friends, or coworkers to abandon Christ? Why would you abandon such a great Shepherd? Don’t be led astray by a mere hireling, who only desires in the end to fleece you.

Are you despairing of your sin and tempted to throw in the towel? Remember the great Shepherd of the sheep who is also your great High Priest, who ever lives, interceding to save you completely.

Are you prone to wander, prone to leave the God you love? Then remember that great Shepherd of the sheep; remember your great Shepherd. And then stay by His side.

A Promise of Salvation

In v. 21 we see that what is being prayed for is actually what God has promised: “make you complete in every good work to do His will, working in you what is well pleasing in His sight”. The promise of v. 21 is dependent upon the premise of v. 20. With God for us (v. 20), we can be sure of God’s promise to us of v. 21. We not only hear the benediction, but we can believe it. Yes, we can believe that God will save us from our sins. Progress is our future and perfection is our destiny. Be hopeful!

This is translated different ways in different Bible versions, but fundamentally the point of the author’s prayer is that God will equip the church with every good thing that they need to do His will. And God will supply all of this through His Son.

Blessings for the Broken

It is helpful for us to always remember that we are a broken people. It is significant that we are referred to as sheep, for sheep are needy. And so are we. The best Christian that you know is needy. We all need to be fixed. In fact, this is precisely what the work of redemption is all about. God is restoring us by the Shepherd to look like the Shepherd.

The words “make you complete” (or “equip”) is a wonderful redemptive term, which is an important concept in the life of the church and in the lives of individual Christians. It is a word that speaks of wholeness. It is used in Matthew 4:21 of fishermen mending their nets. It is used in Galatians 6:1 in the context of restoring fallen Christians. It is used in 1 Corinthians 1:10 of church members being “perfectly joined together.” It is used in Hebrews 10:5 to speak of a body being prepared for Christ. It is used again in Hebrews 11:3 to speak of the worlds being framed by the Word of God. And finally, it is used in Ephesians 4:12 to speak of the work of the leadership of the church, which is to equip church members for the works of ministry. What a rich word, and what a noble prayer!

This prayer is the expression of the author’s desire for a congregation that will apply the gospel to their lives in such a way that they will be fitted together so that they might run the race increasingly mended. As Brown puts it, “In equipping his people with every good thing, our God is able not only to supply what is necessary, but also to repair what is broken.”12

This observation is confirmed when we realise that this word was used in ancient times to describe the setting of a bone, and as we at BBC have come to appreciate increasingly over the years, this is precisely what God expects of our congregation. He expects us to mend one another. He expects, because He has determined, that the church will heal itself.

Holy Healed

Of course, this matter of being healed is not some self-absorbed psychotherapeutic approach to having a happy life. Rather, God desires for us to be healed and to be whole in order that we will be wholly devoted to Him. This is seen here in the phrase “to do His will.”

The Christian is the person who, having been born again by the Spirit of God, has a transformed value system and a worldview that is passionate about the glorious purpose of God (see Matthew 6:9–10). This is the expectation for the church. And, yes, each church member should have this expectation of other church members.

Just think of the health of our body if each of us was passionately and prayerfully committed to doing God’s will. What a difference this would make in our relationships. What a difference this would make in how we confronted sin in our own life as well as in the lives of others.

Paul Tripp exhorts Christians to remember God’s mission, method and character. This will go a long way towards how we use our words to exhort and encourage one another to do the will of God.

The Prayer is a Promise

It is helpful for us to note that this prayer, it seems to me, is an inverted promise from God. The author prays this prayer because he has every confidence that it is the promise of God for His people.

We are told that the prayer is that we will be equipped to live a God-honouring life through Jesus Christ. This indeed points us to a promise, for we are told in Philippians 1:6 of the believer’s promised confidence that the God who has begun a good work in us will complete it on the day of Christ—when we will be perfected, completed. We are told later in chapter 2 that we can be assured of this because it is God who works in us both to desire and to do of His good pleasure. Then, in chapter 3, we are informed that, in Christ, we are new creations and have access to the power of His resurrection. And then, as if for good measure, we are told in chapter 4 that, in Christ, we can do all things—and the all things are clearly in the context of sanctification.

The point is simply and profoundly this: This prayer is a promise. And it is a promise backed by God’s peace, God’s power, and God’s Pastor. We have been supplied with everything we need to live the Christian life.

With this triple encouragement, we have every reason to be encouraged. As Kent Hughes writes, “It is an immutable fact that the power to do what is pleasing to God will always be given to us through Jesus Christ—if we want it! But some of us live as if that is not true. The real question is, Do we want it? Do we desire it? Do we expect it? Do we desire it! Then pray for it!”13 And then be prepared for God to answer. He may surprise you in the way He answers.

I recently experienced some miserable failings in my personal and pastoral life. I sinned with my tongue and my attitude and by my treatment of a brother. The Lord convicted me, I confessed it, and asked for the brother’s forgiveness. He graciously forgave me.

A day or two later, I was feeling pretty miserable with reference to my sanctification. I was sliding towards the slough of despair. Yet I was looking forward to a few days away with my bride. And with my Groom.

A church member loaned me a book on the story of Jeffrey Dahmer, the cannibalistic, sadistic mass murderer of seventeen people. The story was not about his depraved lifestyle, but rather about his purported conversion to Christ a year or so after his trial, conviction and imprisonment for life without parole. It was an incredible story, notably titled, Dark Journey, Deep Grace. I began reading it on the runway in Johannesburg and had finished it by the time we landed in Cape Town. But thirty thousand feet in the air, the confluence of this story of amazing grace and my own misery over my sin came together to give me hope. I prayed, “Lord, may this weekend be a life-changing experience. Please change me; please do a significant work in my life.” I was encouraged.

When we landed, we got our rental car. I noticed that, if we damaged the car or if it was stolen, we would be liable for R14,000—unless I paid extra for insurance. I thought about it and declined. I should not have.

An hour and a half later, having checked into our hotel, we were driving around looking for a place to eat lunch. I was, as per my life story, once again in the wrong lane. I looked in the mirror (well, in some mirror) and backed up. I then heard a horrific crunch. I immediately thought two things: First, I should have purchased the extra insurance; and, second, the Lord was answering my prayer. That was my first accident in 27 years. But it was actually no accident at all. Rather it was God working in me what was well-pleasing in His sight. He was doing His wonderful work of completing me.

I must admit that I struggled for a couple of hours after that. The what-ifs hounded me. But my wife helped me by speaking truth to me and I was able to let it go. I was able to embrace the truth that, indeed, God is my peace, my power and my Pastor. He had not forsaken me. He was and is with me. Because, after all, He is for me.

When I returned, the car the attendant asked if there were any problems with the car. There were not; the problem was with the driver! I pointed out the damage and asked him about the process of assessment and payment. I asked him to have mercy on me! And then I prayed.

They sent me the invoice the other day. Mercy is clearly not a part of their policy! Nevertheless, I know that God is at work. I know that He is my shalom and that He provides me strength through His appointed Shepherd. This is just one way in which God is mending me. I trust that the process will make me a better and more effective fisher of men. And who knows, maybe a more careful driver!

I share this to encourage you that this is real life. This is precisely where we need to understand the promise of this benediction. We probably cannot relate to the trials that the original audience was experiencing, but these verses nevertheless do apply to us. God does not love us any less than persecuted believers. He is no less concerned for our conformity to Christ than He was for these original readers or for believers who are suffering in the 10/40 window. Rather, Christian, God is for you. Believe His promise and rely on His peace. Embrace His power and submit to His Shepherd.

All Praise for Salvation

Before closing this epistle the author once again places the Lord Jesus Christ front and centre. He prays all these things “through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen” (v. 21).

There is legitimate debate as to whether this doxology is with reference to the Father or to the Son. I see it as a reference to the Son of God, since the purpose of this epistle has been to exalt Him as supreme. It is therefore fitting that the epistle closes with the ascription of praise to Him.

This concluding prayer has reminded us of all that we have promised in the gospel, and so, as it closes, we see that, “by the gospel, man’s greatest good coincides with God’s greatest glory.”6

As we experience justification at beginning of our salvation, Jesus Christ receives glory, both now and forever. As we continue to grow, and as we overcome the power of sin, Jesus Christ receives all the glory. And one day, when we are gloriously perfected, Jesus Christ will receive all the glory—forever.

The benediction is a blessing for us, but only to the degree that it enables us to take our eyes off ourselves and to place them on the one who saves us, both now and forever. Yes, “forever and ever.”

What a wonderful reminder that our High Priest, our great Shepherd, ever lives to be praised, and therefore He ever lives to fulfil His promise to save us forever. Because of Jesus, we can know the God of peace. So be it. Indeed, amen.

Show 14 footnotes

  1. Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 267.
  2. John F. MacArthur, Jr., Hebrews: The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1983), 451.
  3. William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:561.
  4. Edgar Andrews, A Glorious High Throne: Hebrews Simply Explained (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2003), 516.
  5. Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 279.
  6. Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 156.
  7. Andrews, A Glorious High Throne, 519.
  8. Lane, Hebrews, 2:561.
  9. Lane, Hebrews, 2:563.
  10. Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:155.
  11. Ted Kluck and Ronnie Martin, Finding God in the Dark: Faith, Disappointment, and the Struggle to Believe (Ada: Bethany House Publishers, 2013), 98.
  12. Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 269.
  13. R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 2:247.
  14. Hywel R. Jones, Let’s Study Hebrews (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 2002), 156.