Thank God for fear. A healthy fear is often the means to save us from tragedy.
I am currently reading the authorised biography of Neil Armstrong, the man who made the one small step on the moon that proved to be a giant leap for mankind. Such a feat required many hours of preparation—preparation driven by a healthy fear.
Over the six months prior to the lunar mission of Apollo 11, Armstrong and his two fellow astronauts, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin, each logged around 1,300 hours preparing for the mission. They worked fourteen-hour days, six days a week, and many times eight hours on Sundays. Why? Largely because they were heading for a mission with a lot of unknowns. Though others had orbited the moon, no one had ever attempted to land on it. Therefore, fear of the unknown drove them to prepare for the unknown. When asked at a press conference what each was taking to the moon as a memento, Armstrong quipped, “I would like to take some extra fuel!” Fear drove their perseverance and, in the end, a healthy fear (respect) led to a successful mission.
When it comes to the gospel, fear is also a great blessing—an inestimable blessing. A proper fear of God drives us to obey Him by believing the gospel (Acts 5:32; 6:7; Romans 1:5, 6:17; 10:16; 15:18; 16:26; Galatians 3:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:8).
This fear of God is clearly our author’s mindset in the passage before us.
This passage is very sobering. Whereas those who went to the moon faced a lot of unknowns, our writer reveals what is clearly to be known: the wrath of God. And as he says, “It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.” Indeed.
Many today, including some who profess to be Christian, reject the biblical revelation of hell. Clark Pinnock is one such individual. He was at one time a well-respected theologian, but has in recent times gone somewhat off the rails. Concerning the doctrine of eternal conscious punishment in hell, he wrote,
I consider the concept of hell as endless torment in body and mind an outrageous doctrine, a theological and moral enormity, a bad doctrine of the tradition which needs to be changed…. Everlasting torment is intolerable from a moral point of view because it makes God into a blood- thirsty monster who maintains an everlasting Auschwitz for victims whom he does not even allow to die.1
Though Pinnock and others mock the biblical teaching about the reality of hell and God’s wrathful and eternal judgement, nevertheless such criticisms are only whistling in the dark. Hell is real, for God’s wrath is real. As Richard Phillips says, “That [God] should judge sinners is not the outrage; the outrage is that man, having received this gift from God, should then despise it.”2 This is our author’s deep concern as he pens the passage before us.
He is persuaded that, for the most part, those to whom he writes are true believers (after all, he addresses them as “brethren” in v. 19). Yet, not being omniscient, he now issues a strong warning to spur them to perseverance. He desires to secure repentance and faith for those who have yet to “enter the Holiest” (v. 19). In fact, it seems that his concern is particularly for those who are still focusing on the shadow of the physical sanctuary rather than on the substantial and true Sanctuary, the Lord Jesus Christ (John 2:19). It would seem that some, rather than drawing near, were in fact dangerously drifting away. This was evident by their drawing away from the community of faith.
Those who were doing so faced the real and present danger that “the Day [was] approaching” (v. 25). The Day of Judgement upon Israel was near, including the destruction of the temple with all the religious ceremony connected to it. But further, hundreds of thousands would die. The question was, would they be ready? Would they be prepared to face the great known of God’s judgement?
It is this concern that drove our author to pen this section (vv. 20–31). He was quite literally attempting to put the fear of God into any and all who might be tempted to turn away from the gospel. As he so soberly summarises, it is indeed “a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.”
This is not an easy message to teach, but is a necessary one. With reference to the famous sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” Kent Hughes said, “Jonathan Edwards gave his people a whiff of the sulphurs of Hell that they might deeply inhale the fragrances of grace.”3 That is my desire. May God give us grace to hear for our eternal benefit.
An Inexcusable Fear
First, the fear of which this text speaks is inexcusably faithless: “For if we sin wilfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation which will devour the adversaries” (vv. 26–27).
Drawing Away and Drifting
Conjunctions such as “for” are important if we will properly interpret Scripture. Here, the word connects what has been said with what is now being said.
Previously, the writer exhorted his readers to guard their communion with the saints. He was concerned that they gather in order to stir up love and good works. They faced difficult days and needed to stand together. Corporate perseverance requires corporate partnership. They were to run the race, to fight the good fight of faith together.
But what of those who had dropped out of the ring? What of those who had abandoned the gatherings? What would become of them? They faced the real and present danger of experiencing God’s raging fire of judgement because of their apostasy. And such apostasy is inexcusable. Apostasy is the sin of turning away from the truth of the gospel even though you know that it is true.
It is important to note that the writer is not referring here to church members who had committed any sin; he is not speaking of those who were weak but rather to those “who forsake the Church and separate themselves from Christ.”4 This is the nature of apostasy.
The Besetting Sin of Unbelief
He writes, “If we sin wilfully” with reference to the sin of unbelief. Again, this is not a reference to sin in general but rather to “the sin of neglecting gospel obedience.” And
the implication is, of course, that those who fail to progress, who do not draw near to God with the assurance of faith, who let slip the confession of their hope, who cease to attend church gatherings and who neglect to stir others up to love and good works are not just lazy Christians—they may not be Christians at all!5
This is the so-called “besetting sin” that is the major concern of this epistle (see, for example, 3:17). Rather than believing God in Christ, they were clinging to faith in ritualistic ceremony. Rather than drawing near by faith (v. 22), they were faithlessly drifting. And as we saw previously, this spiritual drifting was manifest in their drawing away from “assembling” (v. 25). They were faithless and therefore were forsaking the church. They were doing so “wilfully.”
This word describes voluntary, deliberate unbelief. The phrase “after we have received the knowledge of the truth” highlights the deliberate nature of such unbelief. “The word … connotes a conscious expression of an attitude that displays contempt for God.”6 Obviously, this is a very serious condition.
The word translated “knowledge” speaks of a full knowledge. It is used in various places in the New Testament with reference to the body of truth we call the gospel (1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:5; 3:7; Titus 1:1). This is not speaking of having a bare bones acquaintance with the message of the gospel, but rather it refers to a knowledge that is clear. It speaks of knowing all that one needs to know concerning the gospel and knowing it clearly. It may even have the idea of one who has been catechised after confessing the gospel in baptism.
It is this apprehension of the truth that makes the sin of subsequent unbelief so wilful and therefore so serious. Apostasy is the sin of deliberately rejecting what at one time you embraced as the gospel truth.
How serious is this? Note the remaining words of the verse: “there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins.” That is, if you reject the only sacrifice for sins, you are left with no sacrifice for sins (v. 18). Your faithlessness has left you hopeless and liable to furious and fiery judgement. As Guthrie says, “Without an atoning sacrifice in which to trust, all that remains is ‘judgment’ and ‘fury.’”7 In other words, there is no other gospel—either for those in the world or in the “church.”
It is important again for us to understand the Hebrew contextualisation of this epistle. In Numbers 15:30–31 we read that there was no sacrifice for intentional or “presumptuous” sins. A literal rendering of this word is sins that are “high-handed.” To raise the hand was to take an oath, and so the picture is raising your hand swearing that you will defy God. For such a sin, one “shall be cut off from among his people because he has despised the word of the LORD.” To drive its seriousness home we read further that “that person shall be completely cut off; his guilt shall be upon him.” In other words, there was no sacrifice for such sin.
In the context of this epistle we can understand this as saying that if you reject the one and only sacrifice for your sins then you are left without any sacrifice for sins. The only hope for forgiveness is the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. If you reject Him, you have no sacrifice. And such rejection, such faithlessness on the part of those who understand the gospel, is completely and utterly inexcusable. That is why the punishment is so severe. That is why such a person can only anticipate “a certain fearful expectation of judgement, and fiery indignation.” What else would you expect for someone who has deliberately chosen to be amongst the enemies of God (see v. 13)?
These enemies of God would be “devour[ed]”, eaten up by His holy and righteous wrath.
Of course, historically, there was a foretaste of this ultimate judgement when Jerusalem and its temple were destroyed. What a tragedy that there were those who wilfully rejected Christ even after the proof of the resurrection. They proved that they were no different than their forefathers of both the distant past (Matthew 23:29–36) and their recent past (1 Corinthians 2:6–18; 1 Thessalonians 2:14–16). Sadly, the same thing often happens in our own day. For some of you, it may even happen today.
Why have you not believed on Christ? You have heard the gospel clearly. You know that it is true. You know that you are a sinner and that your good deeds cannot save you. You know that Jesus Christ died on the cross as the sinless Son of God. You know that He rose from the dead. You know that He has saved your spouse and/or your children. You know that He has changed the lives of some of your friends. And yet you sit there today as an unbeliever. Beware! This might turn into deliberate and permanent unbelief from which there is no escape.
Wet but Wilful?
Jesus spoke about the danger of people responding initially but in the end only superficially to the gospel truth. Having heard the truth, and having understood the truth, and having subsequently confessed the truth, and even having professed the truth in baptism, nevertheless they fall away (Matthew 13:20–22). It is a fearful thing to be in such a condition. Draw near! Draw near today! Draw near now!
This matter of those who are externally connected to a church falling away from the faith is a tragic and terrible (in the full meaning of the word) reality. It is for this reason that BBC is very careful to maintain the biblical position that only those who believe the Lord truly belong to the Lord. The last thing that we want to do is to give someone the false impression that they are saved when in fact they are not. This is why we are “narrow” when it comes to church membership. We want to be as narrow and as wide as the Bible gives latitude. And it does not give much.
What a travesty if BBC does not issue the admonition contained in this passage. What a travesty if we assume that, simply because one’s name is on the membership list, he is saved. No—a thousand times no!
We must be concerned when absence marks those who profess to be in. What is going on in their heart? Is their forsaking of the fellowship an indication that they are floundering in the faith? Perhaps. Let us lovingly exhort and winsomely warn. God’s wrath is no laughing matter.
This connection with “assembling” is noted by most commentators. For example, William Lane observes,
Attendance at worship and encouraging one another are functions of the new covenant. The neglect of God’s gifts is almost tantamount to a decisive rejection of them. In this instance, the neglect of the meetings of the local assembly actually displayed a contemptuous disregard for the truth, which exposes hardened offenders to divine judgment.8
“We” Might Mean Me
The author knows all too well the danger of falling away from the faith. He seems to be sensitive to the real and present danger of drifting from the gospel. After all, he says, “If we sin wilfully.” “While he emphasizes the danger of others, he does not forget that he too is weak and liable to sin.”9
I am of the persuasion that the New Testament was written either by apostles or by those, like Luke and Mark, who were close to an apostle. If so, then perhaps our author was reflecting on Judas Iscariot as he penned these words. Never has anyone been so close and yet died so far away from salvation. Judas clearly had received the knowledge of the truth, yet he wilfully chose unbelief. Each and every one of us needs to guard our hearts.
The key to perseverance is not presumption, and neither is it obsessive introspection. Rather, the key is to draw near to God every time you are prompted to do so. Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ perpetually!
If you will be preserved from the fearful experience of God’s judgement, you need perpetual belief, not presumptuous belief. And there is no better place to experience this than with others who are also persevering. This cannot be emphasised too much. Assembling is a vital means of grace towards assurance. Don’t miss the connection between vv. 19–25 and the passage before us. If you are not gathering then you are probably drifting away. And one day your drifting may become entrenched as a deliberate lifestyle.
Shortly after I first came to BBC, a man who had been attending the church long before I came asked to see me. I had been emphasising that those with no appetite to fellowship and gather for the preaching of God’s Word probably are not saved. As he sat in my study, he told me that, though he had attended for a long time, he had no appetite. He asked what I thought, and I told him that I thought he was unsaved. He admitted that this was the case and informed me that he no longer intended to attend the church. Just a few months later I received word that, despite the fact that he was a healthy, fit man, he had had a fatal heart attack.
I don’t know exactly what went on his heart in those final months, but he never came back to the church and the words of our text are a stern warning in this regard!
An Inevitable yet Indefinite Fear
The fearful judgement referenced is both inevitable and indefinite.
It is inevitable for those who deliberately turn away from the truth. There is no escape. There can be no escape because there is only one sacrifice for sins. If you reject it, you have no options. But the judgement is also indefinite.
Perhaps a better translation is “a certain kind of fearful expectation of judgement.’ In other words, the judgement is certain: You can count on it. How it comes about is not fully described, but does it matter? Do you really think that you will survive the wrath of holy God? Don’t be foolish. Rather be wise and kiss the Son while you have time before He is angry and you perish in the way (Psalm 2:10–12). As Morris notes, “God is a God of love. But he is implacably opposed to all that is evil. Those who persist in wrong face judgment.”10 Stop persisting in your unbelief!
Consider that, in the historical context, those who chose to reject Christ and return to their former religious ways would very shortly find themselves completely without alternative. That is, with the destruction of the temple they would quite literally be left without a way of sacrifice. Christ will be acknowledged and your rejection of Him will be recompensed. He will receive fullness of worship and you will receive nothing but judgement. God’s judgement will make a believer out of everyone.
Let me bring this point to a close with the observation that, if you are not with Christ, then you are against Him—and I care not how long you have professed to be a Christian or been a church member. All of Christ’s enemies will be a footstool for His feet. Make sure that you neither live nor die as His adversary.
An Impartial Fear
The author, second, speaks of a fear that is indescribably and impartially hopeless.
Anyone who has rejected Moses’ law dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. Of how much worse punishment, do you suppose, will he be thought worthy who has trampled the Son of God underfoot, counted the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified a common thing, and insulted the Spirit of grace? For we know Him who said, “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay,” says the Lord. And again, “The Lord will judge His people.”
The author drives home his point by an argument from the lesser to the greater. He has done so often in the past.
The reference here to the law was most likely that found in Deuteronomy 17:2–6. In that passage, Moses reveals the death penalty for covenant breakers—specifically for those guilty of idolatry. God prescribed that if their idolatry was corroborated by two or three witnesses, they were to be cut off from the covenant community—by death. They are to be punished by death rather than to be spared by pity.
The writer now argues from this how much more severe will be the judgement from God upon those who have wilfully disregarded the new covenant. In other words, if God’s externally covenantal people were put to physical death for wilfully refusing to believe and to obey God under the old covenant, how much worse will be the eternal death suffered by those who wilfully refuse to believe and to obey the gospel of Christ, the new covenant ratified with His own blood. This is a sobering and weighty passage.
Worse than death
There are some things worse than death—such as the second death. To die without Jesus Christ, to die, that is, in your sins, is worse than any physical suffering you could ever have. It is to die without God and therefore to die without hope. Jesus said so (Matthew 13:49–50; 18:8–9; 22:13; 25:41, 46; Mark 9:43, 47–48; Luke 20:17–18). You may not want to hear this, but hear it you must! As John Stott so honestly confessed (even as he wrestled with this doctrine), “I find the concept [of eternal conscious punishment in hell] intolerable and do not understand how people can live with it without either cauterizing their feelings or cracking under the strain.” But, recognising the folly of allowing emotions to determine creed, he adds, “As a committed Evangelical, my question must be—and is—not what does my heart tell me, but what does God’s word say?”11 Phillips is right when he says, “He cannot be good as God without being just in his punishment of sin.”12
Will you submit to Christ and receive His forgiveness today? I was recently asked by a friend to visit a man in hospital. It agreed to do so, and found it one of the most difficult visits I have yet made. The man was in a very poor state and difficult to speak to. I briefly shared the gospel and pleaded with him to repent. He made no profession, and I left wondering how much impact I had made. Regardless, I felt that I had been faithful.
I received word the next day that the man had died, and when I shared my experience visiting him I was told that, when someone else had earlier shared the gospel with him, he expressed his opinion that his sins were too great to be forgiven.
Let me assure you: Your sins are not too great. Your sins are not more powerful than the blood of Jesus Christ. The only unpardonable sin—and it is unpardonable—is for you to reject the sacrifice of Jesus Christ as sufficient for your salvation. This is what our author is telling us here. To reject Christ, to defy God’s new covenant promise, is to oppose the triune God.
Call not Common …
When you reject the gospel of Christ you are treating him much as a pig would treat a jewel in his sty (Matthew 7:6). You are treating Christ as though He is worthless. You are treating the Father’s treasure as though He is trash.
Think about this: The apostates for which our author was concerned were not atheists. They were religious. But they were choosing the blood of bulls and goats over the blood of God’s dear Son. Those who reject the gospel “regard Christ’s blood as common blood, just like that of any other person. That which cost God His Son, and that which cost the Son the agony of becoming sin for us, is counted as worthless.”13 That is blasphemous.
The same happens in our day. Those who profess to be Christian yet rely on their works are counting the blood of Jesus Christ as nothing. Though they may have been externally “sanctified” by His blood (in the sense of being professing church members), nevertheless they were rejecting the Son of God. And if you reject the Son you reject the Father (1 John 2:23).
Finally, if this sin is not bad enough, consider that when you reject Christ your have “insulted the Spirit of grace.” “The word here translated ‘insulted’ [or outraged] indicates the deepest kind of personal insult.”14
The gracious Spirit (Zechariah 12:10) who has testified to the truth of Christ and His saving work (3:7; 9:14) is insulted when someone rejects the gospel. It is never wise to insult the Spirit. The one who is intimately involved with creation, the one by whom a sinner is born again, should be honoured. He should not be blasphemed. Don’t play games with the Spirit of the living God. He is gracious, but His grace will not be offered at your beck and call. He saves as He wills (John 3:5–8). To reject the grace offered by the Spirit is eternally foolish, for only by grace can you be saved!
The refusal to believe the gospel, the wilful and deliberate choice to turn away from Christ rather than turning to Him, is not a matter of insignificance. It is the matter of the greatest and most eternally significant consequences.
“For We Know Him” … or Do We?
Of course, knowing God is the problem. People wilfully reject Jesus Christ and the gospel precisely because they do not know God. After all, to understand something of the majesty and the holiness and therefore the justice of God will drive you to turn from your sin, to turn from your self-righteousness and to trust Christ alone for forgiveness of your sins. But those who reject Christ clearly do not take God and His Word seriously.
Friend or Foe?
The writer quotes from Deuteronomy 32:35–36 to drive home the serious predicament in which some may find themselves. He is seeking to help them to take seriously the gospel and the community of faith. So he reminds them from the song of Moses that God will care for His own; He will repay His enemies. In the context, the writer is teaching that those who reject His appointed way of salvation will be judged as His adversaries. And as He judges His adversaries His people will be vindicated.
But note how he ends: He reminds them that, while they were cheering on God in His justice, God is impartial in His justice. He will judge those outside the covenant but He will also judge those who are only externally connected to His covenant. Don’t miss these words of warning: “And again, the LORD will judge His people.”
Peter also addresses this theme when he says that “judgement [must] begin at the house of God” (1 Peter 4:17). This is precisely what Jesus revealed in the sermon which he preached on the Mount of Olives (Matthew 23–24). And just as the Jews of the first generation needed this message, so does the multi-ethnic church of our generation.
If Jesus prophecy of judgement upon Jerusalem came to pass, why would you disbelieve His promise of the final judgement?
It is not enough to be externally connected to the covenant people of God. Rather, we must have “a true heart in full assurance of faith” (v. 22). Being a member of the church is no substitute for being united to Jesus Christ.
But further, this is an extremely important issue with regard to the fact that God treats us according to our profession. That is, if we profess to be a Christian, as evidenced by participating in the ordinances of the faith, then God will treat us accordingly. In other words, He will hold us accountable for our profession. If we break covenant, He will respond accordingly, and if we keep covenant then likewise He will respond to us. In other words, don’t play games with God’s covenantal symbols.
To be baptised flippantly, manifested by a refusal to ongoing discipleship afterwards, and to partake of the Lord’s Supper without considering Christ’s Body, is dangerous. It may, in fact, be eternally damning in the end. Morris helpfully reminds us that “a man’s claim to be a member of the people of God does not exempt him from judgment. God judges all. Let not the apostate think that he, of all people, can escape.”15
Of course, if you are truly a Christian then you must obey these ordinances. In fact, all of this proves that it is impossible to be neutral about Jesus Christ and His person and work. Repent and believe the gospel!
Let me conclude this point with the sobering comment of William Lane: “Apostates are those who embrace worldliness in preference to the community. They have chosen to return to the world from which they had been separated by the blood of Christ. In their lives the sacred has been collapsed into the profane.”16 May this never be true of you. Once again, examine your relationship with the Body.
An Inescapable Fear
Finally, this fear in inescapable; it is irrevocably loveless. “It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God” (v. 31).
The sobering passage ends with the powerful reminder that the God who takes vengeance is not a figment of our imagination. As Bruce says, “Our author has a deep conviction of the awesome holiness of the divine majesty. And if our author were asked why it is fearful to fall into His hands, he might well reply, ‘Because He is the living God.’”17 This knowledge alone should drive us to our knees in repentance and faith. For if we do not fall “into the arms of the God who is [our] lover, [we] choose to fall into the hands of a God who becomes [our] judge.”14
The fact that God is alive is really good news for those who have drawn near to Him in Christ. It is really bad news for those who draw back from Him. Those who do so will spend eternity separated from Him experiencing the eternal fire of His wrath. And a huge part of this wrath is to be completely cut off from His love. In other words, it is a wondrous thing to fall into the hands of the living God who loves us; it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God who hates us. You might retort, “I don’t like that!” My loving response is: You must believe it! Your soul’s destiny is at stake. As A. W. Tozer wrote, “There will be only one text in hell, and it may be cut against the great walls of that terrible place—‘True and righteous are thy judgments, O Lord!’”2
Merciful or Fearful Hands?
In 2 Samuel 24, David, having sinned by the prideful ordering of a census, was given the choice concerning the punishment. He responded in v. 14 with, “Please let us fall into the hand of the LORD, for His mercies are great.”
David knew that God’s hand could provide mercy to the repentant. But the words before us here imply that those who refuse to repent and to believe God’s Word fall into the hand of God’s pitiless judgement. In other words, the hands of God “are against those who through their actions or attitudes have placed themselves outside of his mercy.”20 And that is a fearful thing.
What will you do now that you have knowledge of the truth? As MacArthur notes, “Perhaps the saddest cause of apostasy is neglect. A person can put off deciding for Christ so long that he loses the opportunity. Not to decide for Christ is to decide against Him.”21 And such neglect will be met with a fearful end. As A. T. Robertson soberly says, “We are not dealing with a dead or an absentee God, but one who is alive and alert.”22 No wonder those who refuse to embrace Christ should be fearful.
The word “fearful” is in an emphatic position in the text. The writer is deeply concerned about the eternal welfare of others—as we should be. God’s wrath is as sure as God’s love. And we must proclaim both sides of the same theological “biography.”
I am aware that people want to be lifted up when they come to church, but we must go where the text leads us. In fact, I would maintain that such sobering teaching can lift us up as we contemplate what we have been delivered from. Christian, thank God that you are in His loving hands. May God use us to help others into those hands as well.
As we conclude, let us be reminded again of the context of the preceding passage. There is very good reason for us to assemble with one another. In fact, it may result in the avoidance of apostasy. Drifting, as we have seen, can be damning.
So, how can we help one another to avoid the judgement described and warned against in this passage? Connect. Converse. Commune. Confront. Correct. Comfort. Above all, care, for this is the bedrock of all the above.
If we are Christians, we will be faithful, hopeful and loving. When we see others who appear to be faithless, hopeless and loveless, let us come alongside and seek to stir up love and good works. And the initial good work is to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ.
It is a fearful thing for unbelievers to fall into the hands of the living God. May God use us, however, to make a difference. Consider one another. And if someone is drifting away then reach out and save with fear, pulling them out of the fire (Jude 23).
- Richard D. Phillips, Hebrews: Reformed Expository Commentary (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006), 369. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 376. ↩
- R. Kent Hughes, Hebrews: An Anchor for the Soul, 2 vols. (Wheaton: Crossway, 1993), 2:40. ↩
- Raymond Brown, The Message of Hebrews: The Bible Speaks Today (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 189. ↩
- Edgar Andrews, A Glorious High Throne: Hebrews Simply Explained (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2003), 320. ↩
- William L. Lane, Hebrews: Word Biblical Commentary, 2 vols. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1991), 2:292. ↩
- Donald Guthrie, Hebrews: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983), 220. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:291. ↩
- Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12 vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 12:106. ↩
- Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12:106. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 369–70. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 371. ↩
- John F. MacArthur, Jr., Hebrews: The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1983), 279. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 191. ↩
- Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 12:108. ↩
- Lane, Hebrews, 2:295. ↩
- Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 263–64. ↩
- Brown, The Message of Hebrews, 191. ↩
- Phillips, Hebrews, 376. ↩
- Guthrie, Hebrews, 223. ↩
- Hebrews, MacArthur, 275. ↩
- A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, 6 vols. (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1960), 5:414. ↩